4 / SPREADING THE NEWS

Much of the power of the medieval papacy came as a result of one of the most famous (and successful) forgeries in history known as the Donation of Constantine. See page 56. This forgery claimed that the fourth century emperor Constantine donated a great swath of imperial land to the office of the papacy, then held by Pope Sylvester I. The early humanist scholar, Lorenzo Valla, began to expose this forgery in the 1440s. A popular twelfth century legal textbook (known as Gratian's Decretum) explained what was believed up until that time: "The Emperor Constantine yielded his crown and all his royal prerogatives in the city of Rome, and in Italy, and in western parts to the Apostolic See.... On the fourth day after his baptism Constantine conferred this privilege on the pontiff of the Roman Church, so that in the whole Roman world priests would regard him as their head, as judges do their king." [See Lorenzo Valla, Discourse on the Forgery of the Alleged Donation of Constantine, for the text of his exposure of the forgery, in both Latin and an old English translation, at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/vallapart2.html]

5 / THEY CAME TO TAKE HIM AWAY

Where was Peter when the news of the election was brought to his doorstep? See page 66. The Roman poet Petrarch says that Peter actually turned and ran, attempting to flee. Should he have?

Part II—Peter of Morrone, 1209-93

6 / NOW I WILL TELL YOU OF MY LIFE

Sweeney begins Part II of his book by briefly explaining the use of hagiography in telling a story such as that of Peter Morrone. Do you see any reasons to trust a hagiographical account of a life? Have you read any such accounts of religious figures in the past? What do you think of the Italian saying quoted by Sweeney on page 72 that translates as: "A lie well told is worth more than a stupid fact"?

7 / I BECAME A MAN WHEN I BECAME A MONK

What do you think of Peter's family background and how it may have affected his professional course in life? How do you see him as compared to other prominent religious figures, including previous popes, of his own century? How has your own family "determined" your future—for good or ill?

8 / A HERMIT LOVES HIS CAVE

Peter Damian's writings and reputation had a profound influence on Peter Morrone's life and thought. Sweeney describes Damian as a zealot, a pessimist, and a reformer. By this point in The Pope Who Quit, do you see Peter Morrone that way, too? Or not?

9 / THE HUNDRED-METER FAST

We return to the theme of asceticism. Ascetic acts were ever-present in Peter's life. It was the nineteenth century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, son of a Lutheran minister, who first called asceticism a religious person's way of gaining power over. Nietzsche suggested that saints and martyrs attempt to dominate the rest of us with these ways of being "holy." He saw an insidious "will to power" in fastings and other physical denials. He called it a "striving for distinction," nothing other than a way of trying to dominate. What do you think?

10 / WALKING TO LYON

This chapter sees Peter Morrone living among the men of power of his era. How do you think those men regarded the hermit? How might Peter have regarded them?

Part III—Turbulent Times