Written by: Julia Hardy
In some areas of the world Buddhism is growing. There has been a resurgence of Buddhism in India for a number of reasons. The ease of travel in the 20th century has made it possible for Buddhists from other countries to visit sacred sites there, and Buddhists from overseas have contributed substantially to the renewal of these sites. When the Dalai Lama was forced to leave Tibet, he was given refuge in India. The Indian government also provided land for refugee settlements and education for Tibetan children, thus there is a large Tibetan Buddhist exile population in India.
Buddhism has also been a religion of choice for Indian untouchables. B. R. Ambedkar, an untouchable who was the chief framer of the Constitution for a newly independent India, converted to Buddhism along with half a million others in 1956. This process of conversion to Buddhism by untouchables began in the late 19th century, spurred by Sri Lankan Buddhist monks, and continues to this day, although it is discouraged by some Hindu groups who regard periodic mass conversions as political stunts.
Today some Chinese and Tibetan temples are being rebuilt, some by the government as tourist attractions, others with contributions from overseas Chinese and other Buddhists. In Taiwan, where Buddhism has flourished, new Buddhist charitable organizations have emerged, such as Tzu Chi, supporting hospitals, disaster relief, and education. In Japan, new religions have emerged with strong Buddhist foundations, and a few of these, such as Soka Gokkai, have become international in scope.
Interest in Buddhism in the west began in the 16th century largely due to reports by Jesuit missionaries to China and Japan, and this interest was strengthened in the 19th and 20th centuries as Buddhist texts were translated into western languages and Buddhist monks came to America and Europe to teach. Writers like the Transcendentalists and the Beats incorporated Buddhist ideas into their literature. A marked increase in Asian immigration in the latter half of the 20th century has also contributed to the growth of western Buddhism. Meditation centers, temples, and universities have been built in the United States and Europe, and thousands of books about Buddhism have been published in western languages. Projects to translate the entire Buddhist canon are also underway.
The 14th Dalai Lama, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, and the Vietnamese monk Thich Nhat Hanh (who was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1967), are Buddhist leaders who have become enormously popular public figures internationally, publishing many books and attracting crowds to their public appearances.
Westerners, both converts and immigrants from Asia, have also contributed to the revitalization of Buddhism in some areas of Asia. Some scholars of Buddhism argue that this western influence has contributed to what they call the "Protestantization" of modern Buddhism. They suggest that the western foundation in monotheistic religion, and the dominance of Protestant Christianity within the academy, have led western Buddhists and scholars of Buddhism to minimize elements such as ritual, mysticism, and the devotional worship of Buddhist deities, in favor of an emphasis on meditation and philosophy.
1. How could it be argued that Buddhism, in some cultures, is a force for commercialization?
2. Does violence have a place within Buddhism?
3. Describe Buddhism's role in the economy of some Asian countries.