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Glossary of Terms: M


Mabon

Mabon

Madhahib

Madhahib

Madhhab

"School;" legal methodology; refers to a school of law

Madrasa

Madrasa

Madrasah

Lit. “place of study”; Institution of higher education in Muslim countries

Magha Puja Day

Magha Puja Day

Maghi

Maghi

Maha Shivaratri

Maha Shivaratri

Mahamantra

Also referred to as the "Hare Krishna mantra," a devotional mantra praising Krishna (or Vishnu); the words are: "Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare"

Mahavira Jayanti

Mahavira Jayanti

Mahavira Nirvana

Mahavira Nirvana

Mahdi

"Guided One," a messianic deliverer who will fill the earth with justice and equity and usher in a golden age

Majalis

Majalis

Majnun

One possessed by a jinn

Makar Sankrant

Makar Sankrant

Maktab

See Kuttab

Mala

string of beads (rosary) used during recitation or inner repetition of mantras as an aid in counting

Malcolm X

Originally named Malcolm Little (1925-1965), black militant leader who taught black nationalism in the early 1960’s; Active member of the Nation of Islam before embracing Sunni Islam

Mamluk

Meaning “bondsman” or “slave”; An Islamic dynasty based in Egypt (1250-1517) with a military corps comprised of slaves

Manaqib

Manaqib

Maqam

Maqam

Marabout

In North and West Africa refers to saint; Member of a Muslim religious community living in a ribat (fortified monastery)

Mardi Gras Shrove Tuesday

Mardi Gras/Shrove Tuesday

Marifa

Ma'rifa

Martin Luther King Day

Martin Luther King Day

Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev

Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev

Martyrdom of the Bab

Martyrdom of the Bab

Martyrdom of the Guru Tegh Bahadur

Martyrdom of the Guru Tegh Bahadur

Masjid

"Place of prostration;" Arabic word for mosque

Mawlid

Mawlid

Mawlid al Nabi Shia

Mawlid al-Nabi (Shia)

Mawlid al Nabi Sunni

Mawlid al-Nabi (Sunni)

Meatfare Sunday

Meatfare Sunday

Mecca

Most holy city of Islam; birthplace of Muhammad; religious center to which Muslims attempt a pilgrimage (hajj)

Medicine Wheel

sacred circles created by large stones laid out in particular patterns

Medina

One of the two most sacred cities of Islam; “city of the Messenger of God;” Muhammad migrated here in 622 CE

Memorial Day

Memorial Day

MEST

in Scientology, acronym for matter, energy, space, and time (from which one must seek liberation)

Millennialism

belief that the end of this world is approaching, and that it will be followed by a just and peaceful New World

Milvian Bridge Day

Milvian Bridge Day

Minbar

Pulpit from which the sermon (khutbah) is delivered in Islam

Miraj

In Islamic legend, the ascension of Muhammad into heaven

Monism

Philosophical theory asserting the unity of all substances; for example, the philosopher Spinoza argued that one infinite divine substance controls or affects everything else.

Monotheism

Belief in the existence of one god (as opposed to polytheism, belief in many gods); Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all based on monotheism.

Moroni

in Mormonism, an angel who appeared to Joseph Smith in 1823 to inform him of his mission to restore God's church on the earth

Mothers Day

Mother's Day

Mudras

"mark" or "gesture" (Sanskrit), symbolic gesture of the fingers and hands used in ceremonies, dance, and art in Buddhism and Hinduism

Muezzin

The official who proclaims the call to prayer (adhan) for public worship on Friday and for the five daily prayers (salat)

Mufti

Islamic legal authority who gives a formal legal opinion (fatwa) in answer to an inquiry

Mughal

Islamic dynasty (1502-1757) extending over much of south Asia; in North India, tried to integrate Islam and Hinduism

Muhammad

The Prophet (570-632 CE) to whom the religion of Islam was revealed and founder of the Muslim community

Muhammad, Elijah

Major leader (1897-1975) of the American Black Muslim movement, the Nation of Islam, for 41 years

Mujaddid

Mujaddid

Mujahada

Mujahada

Mujahadah

“Striving” in Sufism, struggle with the carnal self; includes acts of penance such as fasting and abstinence

Mujizat

"Evidentiary miracles," performed by God as proof of his prophets' truthfulness

Mujtahid

Lit. “one who strives”; Muslim teacher who makes decisions of canon law, as distinct from the collective opinions of an authoritative group (ijma)

Mullah

Persian form of the Arabic term “Mawlawi,” teacher of the sacred law of Islam

Mureed

Mureed

Murjiah

"Postponers;" one of the earliest Islamic sects to believe in the postponement of judgment against sinners, allowing God alone to decide whether they have lost their faith

Murshid

Murshid

Murshid

“Guide” on a straight road; name given to a leader or director of a mystical order; see Sufism

Murtis

Icon, image, or form of a deity in Hinduism; may take the shape of a statue, natural object, linga (cylindrical shape), or a revered living person (such as a guru).

Myth

traditional story ostensibly relating actual events to explain a belief, practice, or institution (especially about religious ritual or doctrine)


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