Written by: Jacob N. Kinnard
Another sense of sacred time in the Hindu world is the time of the distant past, a kind of mythical time when certain gods were active in the human realm. The Mahabharata and the Ramayana record these times, as do the many Puranas, which often narrate divine acts in the human world. As much as these mythic times are understood to be in the past, there is an important sense in which this past continues to be relevant. These stories are retold over and over again, and often presented in dramatic form (including on television), thus making them in a sense contemporary.
Such a sense of sacred time is not always beneficent, however. For instance, in the contemporary political realm some Hindus, particularly those on the right side of the political spectrum, have called for a return to or restoration of this ancient, mythic idealized sacred past, a past when god-kings such as Rama ruled India according to the laws of dharma. Such conceptions of the past, and such calls for a return to a more sacred Hindu time, have all too often had disastrous effects, leading to some extremists to demand that all non-Hindus leave India. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw one such movement with the rise of the BJP political party, which called precisely for a return to the sacred past, and the eventual destruction of the Babri Masjid in Ayodha in 1992 and subsequent riots that left thousands of Hindus and Muslims dead.
Another sense of sacred time is seen in the many stories about the Krishna and his human "consort" Radha. Radha and Krishna's relationship takes place in the forest of Vrindavana (Vrindavan or Brindavana or Brindavan). Although Vrindavana is a physical place—it is in the Mathura district of the modern state of Uttar Pradesh—it is usually conceived as a mythical paradise, a kind of utopia (literally a "no place") that exists "out of time," in a kind of eternal divine present.
Pilgrims visit Vrindavana, seeking the places where Krishna and Radha lived and engaged in their divine play and divine love, as described in any number of devotional texts, such as the beloved Gitagovinda, written by the poet Jayadeva in the 12th century. Although the gods are not physically present (although they can be, in the form of murtis, images), being in this sacred land in a sense transports the worshippers out of human time, into divine time. In an important sense, any Hindu temple, or any sacred place, presents this same sense of temporal transcendence, of sacred, eternal time.
1. How does the Hindu understanding of time differ from the western construction of time?
2. Why are many Hindus interested in the concept of auspicious days?
3. How has sacred time become politicized within Hinduism?