Written by: Beth Davies-Stofka
Umar was also responsible for establishing a variety of important social and legal institutions. Throughout the newly-conquered provinces, Umar appointed provincial judges (Arabic, qadi), to settle disputes. He established regulations to govern public observance of important Quranic teaching, such as the pilgrimage to Mecca, the observance of the holy month of Ramadan, and the punishment of adultery and drunkenness. During Umar's reign, Jews and Christians in the newly-conquered territory were assigned the status of dhimmi, or "People of the Book." The dhimmi were not forced to convert. They were exempted from the zakat, or alms tax obligatory on all Muslims, although they were required to pay the jizyah, or poll tax, which was higher. Whether due to the higher tax burden on the dhimmi, or due to Islam's message of egalitarianism, Islam ultimately won many converts in the newly-conquered territories.
|Legacy of Umar ibn-al-Khattab (634-644)|
|Appoints provincial judges (Arabic, qadi)|
|Establishes regulations to govern observance of Quranic teaching, such as:|
|Jews and Christians assigned status of "People of the Book" (Arabic, dhimmi)|
|Establishes a council (Arabic, shura to select his successor)|
The poll tax was particularly burdensome for poor Christians and Jews, and this caused strong resentment. Some believe this was the motive behind the murder of Umar by a Christian slave in 644. On his deathbed, Umar established a council (Arabic, shura) to select his successor. The shura chose Uthman ibn Affan, a man with a strong reputation for loyalty to Muhammad, as the third caliph. Uthman continued the policies established by Umar, and spearheaded the production of an official written version of the Quran.
Uthman's caliphate was troubled by the rapid expansion of Islamic territory. Far-flung generals were tempted to challenge the central authority of the caliphs, and Uthman confronted serious problems generated by uneven economic development and the distribution of lucrative government appointments. Uthman was frequently accused of nepotism. In 656, an Egyptian delegation visited Uthman at his home in Medina to discuss economic grievances. The talks turned hostile, and the Egyptians laid siege to Uthman's home. Mu'awiyah, Governor of Syria and a member of Uthman's family, the Ummayads, sent forces to assist Uthman, but they didn't arrive in time. Uthman was assassinated.