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For none of us lives for ourselves alone, and none of us dies for ourselves alone. If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord.
—Romans 14:7-8

Heroes are an inscrutable bunch.

On the one hand, they are dramatic, exhilarating characters who inject light and courage into hopelessly dark scenarios. At times, they barely seem human; the motivations behind their actions so far above ours as to be almost unrecognizable. Is it any wonder that the modern consciousness has moved so easily from hero to idealized superhero?

Yet they are also distressingly real, and too often we are surprised to learn that our heroes are flawed, clay-footed men and women.

Just human beings, after all.

Perhaps nowhere in American popular culture is this particular duality more evident than in the historical development of a pair of cinematic genres: the "Cowboy Movie" and the "War Movie."

At the zenith of their popularities, both genres featured heroic-unto- mythical characters and romanticized ideals. And both were largely disinterested in ascribing complex motives and morals of its heroes.

So idealized were the genres' protagonists that actors often moved easily between the two. John Wayne's cowboy was nearly indistinguishable from his sailor, while Gary Cooper was as comfortably believable in Sergeant York's skin as he was in The Virginian's. (It should come as no surprise that such Western stalwarts as Jimmy Stewart and Henry Fonda took their big-screen talents into the real world: both Fonda and Stewart were highly decorated for their service in WWII.)

Gradually, however, these films grew darker and more complex. No longer satisfied with simply presenting heroism—or presenting simple heroism—to their audiences, writers and directors began to dabble with a de-glamorized understanding of heroism and those who practice it. Directors Sam Peckinpah, Sergio Leone, and Sam Fuller, suggested that heroes were often motivated as much by self-interest as by idealism - an idea that grew stronger with each passing film. By the time the cinematic visions of Clint Eastwood and Oliver Stone were being realized, the uncompromising, unadulterated hero of the 30's and 40's had become a thing of the past.