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[i] In re Dow, 213 Fed. 355, 357 (District Court, E.D. South Carolina, 1914), as cited by Moore, Al-Mughtaribun, 53; Khalil A. Bishara, Origin of the Modern Syrian, cited in Michael Suleiman, "Early Arab-Americans: The Search for Identity," in Crossing the Waters: Arabic-Speaking Immigrants to the United States before 1940, ed. Eric J. Hooglund (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987), 44.

[ii] Helen Hatab Samhan, "Politics and Exclusion: The Arab American Experience," Journal of Palestine Studies 16, no. 2 (1987): 14.

[iii] Samhan, "Politics and Exclusion," 11-28.

[iv] Samhan, "Politics and Exclusion," 16.

[v] Amy K. Goott and Steven J. Rosen, eds., The Campaign to Discredit Israel (Washington, D.C.: American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 1983), 3-12.

[vi] Fischbach, "Government Pressures," 89.

[vii] New York Times, May 25, 1973.

[viii] Samhan, "Politics and Exclusion," 26.

[ix] Areas designated as the Arab world by the State Department include the Middle East and North Africa.

[x] Hamid Mowlana, George Gerbner, and Herbert I. Schiller, eds., Triumph of the Image: The Media's War in the Persian Gulf-A Global Perspective (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992); Nicholas Berry, Foreign Policy and the Press: An Analysis of the New York Times' Coverage of U.S. Foreign Policy (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990); Kenneth I. Vaux, Ethics and the Gulf War: Religion, Rhetoric, and Righteousness (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992).

[xi] Reeva S. Simon, The Middle East in Crime Fiction: Mysteries, Spy Novels, and Thrillers from 1916 to the 1980s (New York: Lilian Barber Press, 1989); Albert Hourani, Western Attitudes towards Islam (Southampton: Southampton University Press, 1974).

[xii] Linda Street, Veils and Daggers: A Century of National Geographic's Representation of the Arab World (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000); Edmund Ghareeb, Split Vision: The Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media (Washington, D.C.: American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983); Janice J. Terry, Mistaken Identity: Arab Stereotypes in Popular Writing (Washington, D.C.: Arab-American Affairs Council, 1985).

[xiii] Jack G. Shaheen, Arab and Muslim Stereotyping in American Popular Culture (Washington, D.C.: Center for Muslim Christian Understanding, 1997); Shaheen, Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People (New York: Olive Branch Press, 2001); Shaheen, The TV Arab (Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Press, 1984).