[i] Douglas Johnston, "Why America Should 'Serve' as World Leader," Brown Journal of World Affairs 5, no. 2 (1998): 67-68.

[ii] For a detailed explanation of the rational actor model of decision making, see Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, 1999), 23-33.

[iii] Maneuver warfare is as old as conflict itself and thus has many authors. Its greatest appeal is the fact that it offers the possibility of obtaining results disproportionately greater than the resources applied to the effort, thus providing a chance of victory for the materially weaker side. In its most recent manifestation, the U.S. Army played a leading role in its development under successive Chiefs of Staff Gen. Edward (Shy) Meyer and Gen. John Wickham based on the recommendations of a comprehensive study led by strategic analyst Edward Luttwak, who recommended a concerted emphasis on light infantry. In fact, an unstated purpose of the Army's advent to light infantry divisions was to "beat the Marines to the punch" in the rapid-deployment mission. Michael Mazarr, Light Forces and the Future of U.S. Military Strategy (Washington, DC: Brassy's, 1990), 31.

[iv] Upon first meeting Harry Hillaker, the designer of the F111, Boyd told him it was a "piece of s---." Unlike many pilots who don't like the way a plane handles, Boyd knew exactly where all the problems were, and so did the designer. They eventually became close collaborators.

[v] Robert Coram, Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War (New York: Back Bay Books, 2002), 341.

[vi] Ibid., 424. Defense Secretary Cheney quietly applied some of Boyd's ideas in the run up to Desert Storm.

[vii] Col. Stanton Coerr, "Fifth Generation War: Warfare versus the Non-State," Marine Corps Gazette93:1 (January, 2009): 68. See also, John Boyd, "Patterns of Conflict," ed. Chet Richards and Chuck Spinney (Defense and the National Interest, 2007), 111,

[viii] Coerr, 68.

[ix] As of September 28, 2009, Congress had approved about $944 billion for military operations, base security, reconstruction, intelligence, foreign aid, embassy costs, and veterans' health care relating to Iraq, Afghanistan, and other antiterror-related operations since September 11. Amy Belasco, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 (Congressional Research Service, 2009). See

[x] Osama bin Laden, videotaped message aired on Al-Jazeera, quoted in "Transcript: Translation of Bin Laden's Videotaped Message," Washington Post, November 1, 2004,

[xi] William S. Lind, Maneuver Warfare Handbook (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1985), 5.

[xii] Thomas Hammes, "Countering Evolved Insurgent Networks," Marine Corps Gazette 91:10 (October, 2007): 92.

[xiii] Coram, 326.

[xiv] Ibid.

[xv] Since its inception in the 6th century C.E., the Rule of St. Benedict has become the guideline for Benedictines, Cistercians, and numerous other monastic orders around the world. A practical and concise outline for the development of self-discipline, it has played an instrumental role in shaping the European world artistically, literally, academically, spiritually and even politically during the 10th - 12th centuries, which are sometimes called "the Benedictine centuries."

[xvi] Alexis de Tocqueville, Writings on Empire and Slavery, trans. and ed. Jennifer Pitts (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2001), 49.