Religion and Science
The Quran and All Truth: Islam and Cosmology
Later on, Galileo, the Italian scientist, Newton, the English scientist, and Einstein, a German turned American scientist, gave new dimensions to astronomical developments. In this way, Kepler's laws of orbital motion, Newton's laws of motion, and Einstein's general theory of relativity went a long way to contribute to man's understanding of the universe and unfold many mysteries of the universe. Most of cosmology today is based on the set of solutions found in the 1920s by Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann.
Modern astronomers base their theories on astronomical observations, physical concepts such as quantum mechanics, and elements of imagination and philosophy. Cosmologists have moved beyond trying to find earth's place in the universe to explain the origin, nature, and fate of the universe.
In the latter half of the 20th century, cosmologists were considering two theories for the origin of the universe. The first, a steady state theory, suggested that the universe had always existed. The universe was more or less the same as it is now and it does not change over time. The second was the currently accepted Big Bang theory, which holds that the universe was created from one enormous explosion. It proposes that a huge explosion set free all the matter and energy in the universe. So far the Big Bang theory is widely accepted.
In current cosmological models the universe was first both hot and dense with temperatures exceeding billions of degrees. In the first second after the Big Bang, as the universe cooled, elementary particles such as quarks and electrons were formed. It happened about 15 billion years ago. The scientists believe that the picture of the universe provided by the Big Bang is fairly accurate. This is what science or cosmology says about the creation of the universe. About its present position it is believed that it is still expanding. But there is no clear answer to the question whether the universe will expand forever or eventually will collapse.
Such enigmas are addressed by Islam. Let us see how the issue is treated by the Quran, which takes the question in all its comprehensiveness and addresses all its aspects -- i.e., creation, evolution, past, present, future, and its various systems.
Now we turn over the pages of the Holy Quran and see what it has to say on the subject. The Quran begins with the celebration that Allah is lord of all the worlds. It means the universe is not confined to earth and solar system, that there are other worlds and God has created all. Therefore he is exalted. The first thing regarding the creation of universe is that the universe is created by God. The following verses from the Holy Quran substantiate my point:
"To Him is due the primal origin of heavens and earth and when he decreeth a matter He saith it ‘be' and it is done." (Al-Bakara:117).
"Verily your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and earth in six days and is firmly established on the throne, regulating and governing all the things." (Younis:3)
"To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on the earth; to him do all questions go back." (Al-Imran:109)
There are many verses in the Holy Quran that clearly explain that the authority over the entire universe belongs to Allah, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe. He created the universe then made laws and systems. It is a fundamental belief of Islam because it saves humans from wild goose chases. Islam lays stress on its believers to think and ponder over the creation of God.