Religion and Science
The Quran and All Truth: Islam and Cosmology
The following verse speaks to the issue of the creation of the universe and the earth:
"O, prophet how can they (unbelievers) negate Allah who created the earth in two days. He is the Lord of all the worlds . . . Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky. And it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and the earth come ye together willingly or unwillingly." (Rehman: 41)
According to standard Big Bang Theory, after the big bang when the universe was expanding, it was cooling as well. The cooling has caused the formation of different particles-matter formation. When the energy got sufficiently low, the particles like neutrons and protons combined to make primordial gases. These gases, due to anisotropy, started to concentrate in some regions of the universe, giving rise to the formation of galaxies and stars. This description of the creation of the universe is supported both by experimental discoveries and mathematical formulations.
The universe is expanding in vast space. Quran says:
"With power and skill did We construct the firmament; for it is We Who creates vastness of space." (Al-Zariat:47)
At another place the Almighty says:
"Blessed is He who made constellations in the skies and placed therein a lamp and a moon giving light." (Al-Furqan:61)
In 20th century philosophers began to speculate about the structure of the universe and galaxies. Now, after using giant telescopes, sophisticated instruments, and high speed computers, it is said that the universe is made up of thousands of millions of galaxies and constellations, but the Quran gave the vision through the unlettered prophet 1400 years ago; that is why the Quran says that there are signs for those who are wise, who think, ponder, and want to understand.
The Holy Quran explains the phenomena of time: "the number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) so ordained by Him, the day He created the heavens and the earth." (Al-Tauba:30)
It clearly shows that the specification of time, length of days that we see today was created after the creation of earth and the solar system. How explicitly the time and space are mentioned in the Holy Quran.
The concepts of the movements of earth, the moon, position of the sun and stars and sky are also very explicitly clarified by the Quran.
The word "star" (nujm and najum) appears thirteen times in the Quran. On this subject there is one complete chapter (Al-Najm) in the holy book of Islam. Quranic words Najm and Kokab are translated by the scholars as stars and planets respectively.
According to Quran, "God is the light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is as if there were niche and within it a luminary. The luminary is in glass. And glass is as if it were a planet glittering like a pearl." (Al-Noor:35)
In another verse He says, "We have indeed adorned the lowest heavens with our ornaments and planets." (Al-Safat:6)
It is said that the Quranic word As-sama-o-dunia stands for the solar system. About days and nights, rotation and revolution, the sun and the moon Al-Quran says, "He merges night into day and day into night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law). Each one runs its course for a term appointed."
The Quran addresses the basic questions of creation. Turning toward the creation of all living beings, the holy book says, "And we have created everything living from water." This is a categorical statement and very comprehensive answer of the Quran to the questions of creation and evolution of life -- all life is created from water. There is unanimity of view of almost all the scientists and cosmologists that the basic prerequisite of every kind of life is water. The creation of life without water is impossible.