The Zen Pagan: What Does It Mean For the Gods to Exist?

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To answer the question “Do the deities exist?”, we need to answer two questions, just two trivial little matters: 1) What is a god? 2) What does it mean to exist? [Read more...]

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Naturalistic Traditions: Was archaic Greece naturalistic?

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This series on the history of ancient naturalism began with an overview that tipped my hand: I think naturalism emerged first in Classical Greece.* So, what was so special about the Greeks? Was their archaic culture (roughly 800 – 480 BCE) already inherently pregnant with the idea of naturalism? [Read more...]

Naturalistic Traditions: Were archaic Egypt and Mesopotamia naturalistic?

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Could there have been strands of naturalism running through archaic civilizations such as Egypt and Mesopotamia? As in the cases of hunter-gatherers and early agricultural peoples, tempting evidence suggests it is possible, though unlikely. At the same time, there is good reason to believe these civilizations paved the way for the development of naturalism in later eras. [Read more...]

Naturalistic Traditions: Were early agricultural peoples naturalistic?

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Early humans depended upon nature for their very existence. However, nature religion does not equal naturalism, a worldview that sees all primary causes originating in nature. Yet agricultural advances during the Neolithic period suggest the possible development of a key prerequisite of naturalism. [Read more...]


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