Raymond Buckland and Seax-Wica

In my last blog about the Gardnerians, I indicated that, because of changes in his life situation, in 1973 Ray Buckland found himself at loose ends. Further, after a decade of administering the Long Island coven, he had come to see some disadvantages in the Gardnerian Tradition as received from Lady Olwen, particularly its hierarchic structure.The “Old Laws” or “Ardanes,” which both Doreen Valiente and I have established were not written until 1959, do provide for two kinds of governing struc … [Read more...]

The [American] Gardnerians, 1973-75

[Several colleagues have recommended more precision in titling.]In 1972, after a decade of leading the Long Island coven, Lady Rowen (Rosemary Buckland) decided to retire, and so elevated Lady Theos (Judy Kneitel) and Phoenix (Tom Kneitel, 1933-2008) to be the coven’s new High Priestess and High Priest. At first the Bucklands remained active as Elders in the coven, but then they separated and started becoming less active. When Theos and Phoenix realized that Rowen might no longer be a … [Read more...]

The Gardnerians, 1963-1972

Raymond Buckland was one of the very first people to foresee how important the Gardnerian Witchcraft movement would be and who therefore imported it into the US. I am personally very grateful to Ray, not only for the nice things he said about me in his Witchcraft from the Inside, but also because it was his strong recommendation that persuaded Carl Weschcke to publish my Crafting the Art of Magick: A History of Witchcraft in England, 1939-1964. That was the popularized version of my doctoral … [Read more...]


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