On Evolution by Rational Selection

Almost all atheists are surely aware of Darwinian evolution, which is evolution by natural selection, and which explains the history of life on earth.  Universal Darwinism is the thesis that evolutionary principles operate beyond earthly biology.  Of course, not all things have genes or compete for survival in ecosystems.  More general evolutionary theories need not [Read More...]

Creation Stories

Many religions have creation stories.  The Judeo-Christian creation stories are found in the first chapters of Genesis, which is the first book of the Bible.  There is no need to repeat the Genesis stories here.  It can be agreed that there are some metaphorical or analogical correspondences between the Genesis stories and our best science.  [Read More...]

Criticizing Wicca: God and Goddess

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. According to several Wiccan texts, the Wiccan ultimate deity manifests itself in two forms, the male god and the female goddess. The first way to think about the god and goddess is realistic.  This is theological realism: the god and [Read More...]

On Participation in Being-Itself

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. On Tillich’s view, since the divine is being-itself, all humans participate in the divine simply by existing.  But that participation is not experiential.  Any experiential participation in the divine can only be through the distinctive ways in which humans exist.  [Read More...]

The Wiccan God and Goddess: Reality and Mythology

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. The Farrars have an intriguing discussion of the ontological commitments of Wiccans to their god and goddess.  Their discussion has three parts: (1) the realist thesis; (2) the anti-realist antithesis; and (3) the pragmatic resolution. The more detailed version of [Read More...]

Wicca and the Problem of Evil

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. Many Wiccan writers criticize Christians for dividing the ultimate deity into a purely good God and a purely evil Devil.  They deny this division.  Buckland writes: “the idea of dividing the Supreme Power into two – good and evil – [Read More...]

The God and the Goddess

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. On the basis of their own texts, presented in an earlier post, it seems like Wicca affirms the existence of an ultimate deity.  On my analysis, the Wiccan ultimate deity is the ultimate immanent creative power of being.  It is [Read More...]

Pure Objective Reason

This is a guest post by Eric Steinhart, Professor of Philosophy at William Paterson University. As immanent, being-itself is just the ultimate nature of every natural thing.  So, how does this immanent being-itself manifest itself?  It manifests itself in all the categories of nature.   These are the categories of naturalistic ontology.  To use some language [Read More...]

Atheism and the Sacred: Being-Itself

Paul Tillich defined God as being-itself.  He argued that being-itself is not any being; it is not a thing, and it does not even exist.  For Tillich, being-itself transcends existence.  It cannot be identified with any being (neither with any particular nor with any universal).  It cannot be located within the categories of any ontology [Read More...]


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