Three approaches to worship

Prof. John Pless, at our church’s Good Shepherd Seminar, drew on some other scholarship to point out that there are three different assumptions as to what worship should accomplish:

(1) Conversion. The purpose of worship is to convert non-believers. A more recent variation is motivation of believers. This developed from 19th century revivals, which eventually moved from the tent meetings outside the church to inside the sanctuaries.

(2) Celebration. The purpose of worship is to celebrate what God has done for us. The service should always be “upbeat.” This began in the Roman Catholic church with the worship reforms of Vatican II, but then began influencing some Protestant services.

(3) Consolation. The purpose of worship is to convey the forgiveness of sins, to strengthen the struggling, to comfort the troubled. This characterizes traditional Lutheran services.

Prof. Pless said that many contemporary services, such as those that characterize megachurches, combine the conversion and the celebration models. He cited one church growth advisor who said that services should not start with a confession of sins, since that is a “downer.”

To realize these three assumptions explains a lot, including about music. The conversion model will result in very emotional music, as in revival tunes. The celebration model yields happy praise songs. The consolation model includes music that is serious, sometimes in a minor key, with lots of comforting content.

About Gene Veith

Professor of Literature at Patrick Henry College, the Director of the Cranach Institute at Concordia Theological Seminary, a columnist for World Magazine and TableTalk, and the author of 18 books on different facets of Christianity & Culture.

  • Dan

    (4) Command. The chief purpose of worship is the praise of Almighty God, and God is praised by obedience to the guidelines He has given to His church in Scripture. Because the apostles preached, we preach. Because Christ instituted the Lord's Supper and Baptism, we exercise those sacraments. Because God has given us an inspired songbook, we use the Psalms exclusively. Any other inventions, motivations, or reasons for worship are "strange fire" before the Lord. This "regulative principle of worship" is obedience to the first commandment. This characterizes traditional Reformed services.

    (Of course God works conversion in the hearts of His people through faithful preaching, provides an opportunity through the sacraments to celebrate Him, and consoles the hearts of His people though Christian fellowship, but these are blessings we receive from the worship service, not objectives we are trying to accomplish through the worship service. In the way of worshipping God as He has commanded, we will be blessed.)

  • Dan

    (4) Command. The chief purpose of worship is the praise of Almighty God, and God is praised by obedience to the guidelines He has given to His church in Scripture. Because the apostles preached, we preach. Because Christ instituted the Lord's Supper and Baptism, we exercise those sacraments. Because God has given us an inspired songbook, we use the Psalms exclusively. Any other inventions, motivations, or reasons for worship are "strange fire" before the Lord. This "regulative principle of worship" is obedience to the first commandment. This characterizes traditional Reformed services.

    (Of course God works conversion in the hearts of His people through faithful preaching, provides an opportunity through the sacraments to celebrate Him, and consoles the hearts of His people though Christian fellowship, but these are blessings we receive from the worship service, not objectives we are trying to accomplish through the worship service. In the way of worshipping God as He has commanded, we will be blessed.)

  • chaplaintotheworld

    The first purpose of Christian worship is not praise, it's in the mix, but not chief. Foremost is to have flesh and blood fellowship with Christ via His appointed means of the Gospel and Sacraments. Jesus meets with us in the Mass, no just in our individual or corporate imagination, or in our longings or just spiritually. Instead, He joins His flesh to our flesh, He speaks His words of love and remission into our ears. He does this through His appointed means and appointed man, the pastor. "Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."

  • chaplaintotheworld

    The first purpose of Christian worship is not praise, it's in the mix, but not chief. Foremost is to have flesh and blood fellowship with Christ via His appointed means of the Gospel and Sacraments. Jesus meets with us in the Mass, no just in our individual or corporate imagination, or in our longings or just spiritually. Instead, He joins His flesh to our flesh, He speaks His words of love and remission into our ears. He does this through His appointed means and appointed man, the pastor. "Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age."

  • Manxman

    “Honor and majesty are before him, strength and beauty are in his sanctuary. Ascribe to the Lord, O families of the peoples, ascribe to the Lord glory and strength! Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name.” (Psalm 96:6-8)

    Worship is a way of gladly reflecting back to God the radiance of his worth.

  • Manxman

    “Honor and majesty are before him, strength and beauty are in his sanctuary. Ascribe to the Lord, O families of the peoples, ascribe to the Lord glory and strength! Ascribe to the Lord the glory due his name.” (Psalm 96:6-8)

    Worship is a way of gladly reflecting back to God the radiance of his worth.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    I tend to preach, not because the apostles did, but because Christ forgave my sins along with the sins of the world on the cross, and I want everyone to know that.
    I hate the regulative principle. It is a bunch of legalist hogwash.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    I tend to preach, not because the apostles did, but because Christ forgave my sins along with the sins of the world on the cross, and I want everyone to know that.
    I hate the regulative principle. It is a bunch of legalist hogwash.

  • Booklover

    Wow thanks! This is interesting. Models #1 and #2 would also say the words “I” and “me” a lot in their songs. Lutherans don’t do that. :-) (Unless “‘I’ am a poor miserable sinner” is contained in the lyrics.) :-)

    #1 and #2 take our focus off a holy God and onto us.

    If we don’t confess our sins, we might start becoming pharisaical, believing we don’t have any. :-/

  • Booklover

    Wow thanks! This is interesting. Models #1 and #2 would also say the words “I” and “me” a lot in their songs. Lutherans don’t do that. :-) (Unless “‘I’ am a poor miserable sinner” is contained in the lyrics.) :-)

    #1 and #2 take our focus off a holy God and onto us.

    If we don’t confess our sins, we might start becoming pharisaical, believing we don’t have any. :-/

  • http://blog.higherthings.org/wcwirla/ wcwirla

    Conversion, celebration, comfort, communion, command – these are all facets of worship. According to the Lutheran Confessions, the highest and chief worship is the proclamation of Christ and the forgiveness of sins, which would necessarily involve all of the above.

  • http://blog.higherthings.org/wcwirla/ wcwirla

    Conversion, celebration, comfort, communion, command – these are all facets of worship. According to the Lutheran Confessions, the highest and chief worship is the proclamation of Christ and the forgiveness of sins, which would necessarily involve all of the above.

  • WebMonk

    If that really is a sufficient summary of what Dr. Pless taught, then I can’t say I think very highly of his teaching.

    Sort of along the lines of wcwirla’s statement, worship has many purposes and aspects. I would say that it has multiple purposes to the extent that I would hesitate to say that it has a single primary purpose. It certainly has more important and less important aspects, but narrowing it down to just one single thing cuts out WAY too much.

    Praise, relationship building, teaching, nurturing, supplication, etc, etc, etc. It accomplishes and is part of many things – saying that worship (be it through song, prayer, whatever) is just about consolation is asinine.

    (I suspect that the summary Veith put up is not intended to be the summation of everything Pless said about worship. If Pless really had said worship’s primary purpose was consolation, then yeah, that’s … interesting, but I’m pretty sure he didn’t.)

  • WebMonk

    If that really is a sufficient summary of what Dr. Pless taught, then I can’t say I think very highly of his teaching.

    Sort of along the lines of wcwirla’s statement, worship has many purposes and aspects. I would say that it has multiple purposes to the extent that I would hesitate to say that it has a single primary purpose. It certainly has more important and less important aspects, but narrowing it down to just one single thing cuts out WAY too much.

    Praise, relationship building, teaching, nurturing, supplication, etc, etc, etc. It accomplishes and is part of many things – saying that worship (be it through song, prayer, whatever) is just about consolation is asinine.

    (I suspect that the summary Veith put up is not intended to be the summation of everything Pless said about worship. If Pless really had said worship’s primary purpose was consolation, then yeah, that’s … interesting, but I’m pretty sure he didn’t.)

  • WebMonk

    Hey, how come Dan and chaplaintotheworld have posted at 12:20 and 12:46? It’s only 12:09 now.

    The posting software must be grabbing the personal computer’s displayed time instead of the web server’s time.

  • WebMonk

    Hey, how come Dan and chaplaintotheworld have posted at 12:20 and 12:46? It’s only 12:09 now.

    The posting software must be grabbing the personal computer’s displayed time instead of the web server’s time.

  • WebMonk

    Hmmm, let’s see if this posts at 2:10 PM. (I changed the time on my computer.)

  • WebMonk

    Hmmm, let’s see if this posts at 2:10 PM. (I changed the time on my computer.)

  • WebMonk

    Darn. I guess that’s not it.

  • WebMonk

    Darn. I guess that’s not it.

  • JonSLC

    Lutherans are interested in conversion, too. We pray for it to happen in our worship services among non-Christians who are visiting. But the difference between the approach in number 1 and the Lutheran approach is that Lutherans believe that the Holy Spirit will convert people whenever he wills, and that he’ll use the proclamation of the gospel to do it. Therefore, a Lutheran service aiming at conversion will be sure to include a clear proclamation of human sin and divine forgiveness through Christ. Such a proclamation will happen in the sermon, but also in the hymns and other parts of the service. And such a proclamation of the gospel is also the way to lead souls to celebrate God’s grace. Conversion and celebration are achieved by the Spirit, who chooses to use the gospel message as his instrument.

    Therefore, things like mood and ambiance are considerations for Lutheran worship planners and leaders, but they’re not nearly as important as the gospel content in the service.

  • JonSLC

    Lutherans are interested in conversion, too. We pray for it to happen in our worship services among non-Christians who are visiting. But the difference between the approach in number 1 and the Lutheran approach is that Lutherans believe that the Holy Spirit will convert people whenever he wills, and that he’ll use the proclamation of the gospel to do it. Therefore, a Lutheran service aiming at conversion will be sure to include a clear proclamation of human sin and divine forgiveness through Christ. Such a proclamation will happen in the sermon, but also in the hymns and other parts of the service. And such a proclamation of the gospel is also the way to lead souls to celebrate God’s grace. Conversion and celebration are achieved by the Spirit, who chooses to use the gospel message as his instrument.

    Therefore, things like mood and ambiance are considerations for Lutheran worship planners and leaders, but they’re not nearly as important as the gospel content in the service.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    How do you get from primary purpose to only purpose?
    By saying comforting souls is the primary purpose of worship, does not at all negate that there are other “purposes” or aspects of worship. It just points out that the Gospel (The forgiveness of sins, that comfort souls) should be the primary focus of the worship service. Or do you disagree with that and think something else other than Jesus Christ and him Crucified should occupy our time?

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    How do you get from primary purpose to only purpose?
    By saying comforting souls is the primary purpose of worship, does not at all negate that there are other “purposes” or aspects of worship. It just points out that the Gospel (The forgiveness of sins, that comfort souls) should be the primary focus of the worship service. Or do you disagree with that and think something else other than Jesus Christ and him Crucified should occupy our time?

  • Ryan

    As presented in the original post you have a false trichotomy. What goes on is a mix of all three, that some groups use one or two of these to the exclusion of the other is the problem. “Consolation” so called may be primary but I tell you that our Easter services had heavy doses of 1 and 2.

  • Ryan

    As presented in the original post you have a false trichotomy. What goes on is a mix of all three, that some groups use one or two of these to the exclusion of the other is the problem. “Consolation” so called may be primary but I tell you that our Easter services had heavy doses of 1 and 2.

  • DonS

    It also seems to me that worship should incorporate a blend of all three categories/approaches. That appears to be the biblical model as well, as is obvious from a reading of the Psalms.

  • DonS

    It also seems to me that worship should incorporate a blend of all three categories/approaches. That appears to be the biblical model as well, as is obvious from a reading of the Psalms.

  • subcutaneous

    Dan’s and chaplain’s posts were the ONLY two posts when I checked first thing this morning. Looks like the time on their posts gets changed when other posts appear ??

  • subcutaneous

    Dan’s and chaplain’s posts were the ONLY two posts when I checked first thing this morning. Looks like the time on their posts gets changed when other posts appear ??

  • WebMonk

    Bror – Jesus Christ and Him Crucified should absolutely be the center/whole of worship.

    That’s exactly why I say worship is WAY more than consoling. That’s an aspect, an important aspect, but saying that’s the primary purpose and the other purposes are secondary is a skewed view.

    If you want to say “primary purpose” of worship to be something like Consolation:12%, Relationship:11%, Praise:10%, Confession:9% ….. something like that. Then sure. I’ll go along with that – Consolation is primary.

    But, if you want to talk about “primary purpose” of worship being something like Consolation:51%, Relationship:11%, Praise:10%…. then yeah – that’s a skewed view of worship.

    One thing that might be meant is using “Consolation” as a big set. I know people for whom “Praise” includes things like consolation and confession. Consolation can certainly be used in a like manner to include things like Praise, Relationship, Confession, and stuff. If that stuff is included in “Consolation”, then sure, I agree that “Consolation” is definitely primary.

  • WebMonk

    Bror – Jesus Christ and Him Crucified should absolutely be the center/whole of worship.

    That’s exactly why I say worship is WAY more than consoling. That’s an aspect, an important aspect, but saying that’s the primary purpose and the other purposes are secondary is a skewed view.

    If you want to say “primary purpose” of worship to be something like Consolation:12%, Relationship:11%, Praise:10%, Confession:9% ….. something like that. Then sure. I’ll go along with that – Consolation is primary.

    But, if you want to talk about “primary purpose” of worship being something like Consolation:51%, Relationship:11%, Praise:10%…. then yeah – that’s a skewed view of worship.

    One thing that might be meant is using “Consolation” as a big set. I know people for whom “Praise” includes things like consolation and confession. Consolation can certainly be used in a like manner to include things like Praise, Relationship, Confession, and stuff. If that stuff is included in “Consolation”, then sure, I agree that “Consolation” is definitely primary.

  • FW

    The augsburg confession says this:

    “true worship IS faith in Jesus Christ.”

    Lutherans identify themselves and others as being members of the Lutheran sect of christianity by their public profession that the augsburg confession is a faithful exposition of Holy Scripture.

  • FW

    The augsburg confession says this:

    “true worship IS faith in Jesus Christ.”

    Lutherans identify themselves and others as being members of the Lutheran sect of christianity by their public profession that the augsburg confession is a faithful exposition of Holy Scripture.

  • FW

    Maybe this will help:

    Lutherans think of their faith in an organic way connected to the incarnation and so the “Divine service” (=Lutheran-speak for worship service) is not about going to hear a set of persuasive propositions that move or reinforce us emotionally intellectually or even spiritually. we go where Jesus tells us he can be found. This is only in church where we literally and physically are connected to Jesus bodily in baptism, the bread-body and wine-blood and Jesus, in, with and under, pstoral palm on pate in absolution.

    This kind of knowledge is similar to that of child knowing mother. at birth infant “knows” what “mother” in a fullness that he will not know as an adult, but must grow to also know “mother” intellectually as well. This relation, which we can participate in only the Divine service and outward from it, is all we Lutherans find in worship. True worship is faith in the person Jesus christ. period.

  • FW

    Maybe this will help:

    Lutherans think of their faith in an organic way connected to the incarnation and so the “Divine service” (=Lutheran-speak for worship service) is not about going to hear a set of persuasive propositions that move or reinforce us emotionally intellectually or even spiritually. we go where Jesus tells us he can be found. This is only in church where we literally and physically are connected to Jesus bodily in baptism, the bread-body and wine-blood and Jesus, in, with and under, pstoral palm on pate in absolution.

    This kind of knowledge is similar to that of child knowing mother. at birth infant “knows” what “mother” in a fullness that he will not know as an adult, but must grow to also know “mother” intellectually as well. This relation, which we can participate in only the Divine service and outward from it, is all we Lutherans find in worship. True worship is faith in the person Jesus christ. period.

  • Ryan

    More accurately: “In Summary, the worship of the New Testament is spiritual, that is, it is the righteousness of faith in the heart and the fruits of faith” Apology XXIV, 27

  • Ryan

    More accurately: “In Summary, the worship of the New Testament is spiritual, that is, it is the righteousness of faith in the heart and the fruits of faith” Apology XXIV, 27

  • EGK

    I think it is best to state that forgiveness of sins in Christ is the reality out of which praise and thanksgiving (celebration, if you will) flow. Just as justification is the center of our theology, of which everything else is either antecedent or consequent, our freedom in our worship has to be connected to the reality of the forgiveness of sins.

    Luther re the third commandment: “We should fear and love God that we do not despise preaching and His word . . . ” indicates that sanctifying the Holy Day, i.e. worshiping God, comes first from hearing, and then receiving and extolling what He has given us. (Lutheran Worship Preface).

    Since God’s word is living and active we should not be surprised if conversion takes place, since God’s word does not return to Him void. Conversion cannot take place unless forgiveness is proclaimed and actually given! Further, the people of God, strengthened by the Word, will be empowered to confess Christ in the world, hence evangelism take place outside the sanctuary as well as in.

  • EGK

    I think it is best to state that forgiveness of sins in Christ is the reality out of which praise and thanksgiving (celebration, if you will) flow. Just as justification is the center of our theology, of which everything else is either antecedent or consequent, our freedom in our worship has to be connected to the reality of the forgiveness of sins.

    Luther re the third commandment: “We should fear and love God that we do not despise preaching and His word . . . ” indicates that sanctifying the Holy Day, i.e. worshiping God, comes first from hearing, and then receiving and extolling what He has given us. (Lutheran Worship Preface).

    Since God’s word is living and active we should not be surprised if conversion takes place, since God’s word does not return to Him void. Conversion cannot take place unless forgiveness is proclaimed and actually given! Further, the people of God, strengthened by the Word, will be empowered to confess Christ in the world, hence evangelism take place outside the sanctuary as well as in.

  • http://centralpennsylvaniaorthodox.wordpress.com/ rightwingprof

    These are the only three, and all of them, humanocentric? How about this: The purpose of worship is worship, that is, to glorify God, and only to glorify God, a wholly theocentric model, in which my feelings and my self-esteem are utterly irrelevant.

    That would be the fourth model. The Orthodox model.

  • http://centralpennsylvaniaorthodox.wordpress.com/ rightwingprof

    These are the only three, and all of them, humanocentric? How about this: The purpose of worship is worship, that is, to glorify God, and only to glorify God, a wholly theocentric model, in which my feelings and my self-esteem are utterly irrelevant.

    That would be the fourth model. The Orthodox model.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    So you don’t think Christ died to forgive sins? Or you don’t think that forgiveness of sins is consoling?

    Everything else in worship is a distant second to the consolation of souls with the forgiveness of sins. It is in response to the forgiveness of sins that we praise God, or are even prepared enough to glorify God. Our sins have to be washed away in the blood of the lamb, our souls purified, before we can even begin to glorify God. For we dare not approach the throne room of God with the stench of our sin.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    So you don’t think Christ died to forgive sins? Or you don’t think that forgiveness of sins is consoling?

    Everything else in worship is a distant second to the consolation of souls with the forgiveness of sins. It is in response to the forgiveness of sins that we praise God, or are even prepared enough to glorify God. Our sins have to be washed away in the blood of the lamb, our souls purified, before we can even begin to glorify God. For we dare not approach the throne room of God with the stench of our sin.

  • boaz

    “The purpose of worship is worship, that is, to glorify God, and only to glorify God,”

    That is humanocentric because it is about what you do.

    Lutheran worship is about what God does: pours his grace out on us in Word and Sacrament. We can’t but help to praise him in response, but that praise continues day in and day out in Christian living.

    If all you are doing in worship is glorifying God, when are you receiving grace? Do you commune to glorify God

  • boaz

    “The purpose of worship is worship, that is, to glorify God, and only to glorify God,”

    That is humanocentric because it is about what you do.

    Lutheran worship is about what God does: pours his grace out on us in Word and Sacrament. We can’t but help to praise him in response, but that praise continues day in and day out in Christian living.

    If all you are doing in worship is glorifying God, when are you receiving grace? Do you commune to glorify God

  • boaz

    I think Luther on the German Mass says ceremonies should take into account the ignorant and gakwers, to teach them about the Gospel. The confessions also speak about how worship practices should teach and remind of the Gospel. I don’t think permits anything goes attitude towards worship, but I do think it should quiet those liturgical legalists who claim Lutheran worship absolutely must follow historical liturgy. On the other hand, in my experience, Lutheran contemporary worship often, and tragically, ignores the Gospel for cheap sentimentalism.

  • boaz

    I think Luther on the German Mass says ceremonies should take into account the ignorant and gakwers, to teach them about the Gospel. The confessions also speak about how worship practices should teach and remind of the Gospel. I don’t think permits anything goes attitude towards worship, but I do think it should quiet those liturgical legalists who claim Lutheran worship absolutely must follow historical liturgy. On the other hand, in my experience, Lutheran contemporary worship often, and tragically, ignores the Gospel for cheap sentimentalism.

  • WebMonk

    Bror – “So you don’t think Christ died to forgive sins? Or you don’t think that forgiveness of sins is consoling?”

    If that was an even remotely sensible comment I might be able to respond. I’ve gone over that several different times trying to figure out WTF you’re talking about, and I haven’t the foggiest clue.

    I have no idea how to respond, what you mean, or on what possible basis you could come to something like that. The best I can do is stick to a really literal response: Of course, Christ died to forgive sins. Obviously that is consoling.

  • WebMonk

    Bror – “So you don’t think Christ died to forgive sins? Or you don’t think that forgiveness of sins is consoling?”

    If that was an even remotely sensible comment I might be able to respond. I’ve gone over that several different times trying to figure out WTF you’re talking about, and I haven’t the foggiest clue.

    I have no idea how to respond, what you mean, or on what possible basis you could come to something like that. The best I can do is stick to a really literal response: Of course, Christ died to forgive sins. Obviously that is consoling.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    Then why is the service not to be primarily about the consolation of souls if it’s focus is to be Christ Crucified?
    That is the point.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    Webmonk,
    Then why is the service not to be primarily about the consolation of souls if it’s focus is to be Christ Crucified?
    That is the point.

  • WebMonk

    boaz – “Lutheran worship is about what God does: pours his grace out on us in Word and Sacrament.”

    That is humanocentric because it is about what is done to men.

    That makes as much sense as your response to rightwingprof. We can play word games all day.

    Either way you can accuse others of humanocentrism:
    * Lutheran worship is all about men because it’s focused on what is happening to men.
    * Orthodox worship is all about men because it’s focused on men doing the worshiping.

    Luth: “You are a humanocentrist!”
    Orth: “No, you are!”
    L: “Nope, you are!”
    O: “You are!”
    L: “You are!”
    O: “You!”
    L: “You!”

  • WebMonk

    boaz – “Lutheran worship is about what God does: pours his grace out on us in Word and Sacrament.”

    That is humanocentric because it is about what is done to men.

    That makes as much sense as your response to rightwingprof. We can play word games all day.

    Either way you can accuse others of humanocentrism:
    * Lutheran worship is all about men because it’s focused on what is happening to men.
    * Orthodox worship is all about men because it’s focused on men doing the worshiping.

    Luth: “You are a humanocentrist!”
    Orth: “No, you are!”
    L: “Nope, you are!”
    O: “You are!”
    L: “You are!”
    O: “You!”
    L: “You!”

  • WebMonk

    Ok Bror. Got it. You’re working with the expanded version of Consolation.

    We receive consolation.
    We praise because we’ve been consoled.
    We relate because we’ve been consoled.
    We confess because …, We celebrate because …, We humble ourselves because, We seek to learn because, We declare because.
    Etc, etc.

    No problems, then. With that concept of consolation being the centerpiece of worship, I can’t disagree because “consolation” includes praise, confession, relation, celebration, and everything else.

    I think I mentioned something like that in comment 16.

  • WebMonk

    Ok Bror. Got it. You’re working with the expanded version of Consolation.

    We receive consolation.
    We praise because we’ve been consoled.
    We relate because we’ve been consoled.
    We confess because …, We celebrate because …, We humble ourselves because, We seek to learn because, We declare because.
    Etc, etc.

    No problems, then. With that concept of consolation being the centerpiece of worship, I can’t disagree because “consolation” includes praise, confession, relation, celebration, and everything else.

    I think I mentioned something like that in comment 16.

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