How should Christians react to bin Laden’s death?

Rev. Jacob Ehrhard offers nine points for reflection on how Christians should react to the killing of Osama bin Laden:

1.  The prophet Ezekiel writes, “Say to them, As I live, declares the Lord GOD, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turn from his way and live; turn back, turn back from your evil ways, for why will you die, O house of Israel?” (Eze 33:11) A Christian does not find delight in any person dying, except in the death of the saints. Our delight would have been in bin Laden’s repentance.

2. God relented of His wrath and punishment for ten years following bin Laden’s most vicious attack. He had ample time to repent of his wickedness, but showed himself time and time again to be an enemy of both the Church and the State.

3. Though we do not delight in his death, it is a cause for rejoicing.

4. After Moses and the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea and the host of Pharaoh’s army was drowned, they sang, “I will sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea” (Ex 15:1). While this certainly has a spiritual meaning in Christ’s victory over sin, death, and hell, we must not forget the historical fact that the saints rejoiced over the death of their enemies. Psalm 68 says, “God shall arise, his enemies shall be scattered; and those who hate him shall flee before him! But the righteous shall be glad; they shall exult before God; they shall be jubilant with joy! (Ps 68:1, 3).

5.  But we live in the New Testament. Jesus has died for the sins of the world. Doesn’t that mean that Christians should condemn any act of violence? Shouldn’t we rather depend on the Gospel to deal with the wicked? First, the essence of God’s nature did not change from Old to New Testament, for it was also in the Old Testament where God says that He does not take pleasure in the death of the wicked (see point 1 above). Also, the path to salvation has not changed. Even in the Old Testament, people were saved by repentance and faith in the promise of Christ. Yet God still punished the wicked by the sword (often the swords of His saints).

6.  Second, Sts. Paul and Peter reaffirm that God has instituted the government to punish wickedness. “Be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution, whether it be to the emperor as supreme, or to governors as sent by him to punish those who do evil and to praise those who do good” (1 Pt 2:13-14). And, “For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God…Then do what is good and you will receive his approval, for he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer” (Rom 13:1b, 3b-4). The Kingdom Christ establishes (the Church) is distinct from worldly kingdoms, but worldly kingdoms and their authority still exist and more so, are instituted by God.

7.  The Lutheran Reformers also teach “that the spiritual kingdom does not change the public state. Therefore, private remedy [i.e. personal revenge] is prohibited not by advice, but by command (Matthew 5:39; Romans 12:19). Public remedy, made through the office of the public official, is not condemned, but is commanded and is God’s work, according to Paul (Romans 13). Now the different kinds of public remedy are legal decisions, capital punishment, wars, and military service” (Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XVI).

8.  In his work Whether Soldiers, Too, Can Be Saved, Martin Luther makes it clear that the work of a soldier–even when it’s killing and bloodshed–is a good work when done within vocation. He writes, “This is why God honors the sword so highly that he says that he himself has instituted it [Rom. 13:1] and does not want men to say or think that they have invented it or instituted it. For the hand that wields this sword and kills with it is not man’s hand, but God’s; and it is not man, but God, who hangs, tortures, beheads, kills, and fights.” The entire treatise is highly recommended, as well as Temporal Authority: To What Extent It Should Be Obeyed and On War against the Turk (all are found in Luther’s Works, American Edition, vols. 45 & 46). If the work of the Navy Seals was indeed God’s work, then it is rightly to be praised.

9.  How should a Christian react to the killing of Osama bin Laden? We do not delight in his death, even though he was an adamant enemy of Church and State. Yet we rejoice that God has given us the sharpest sword ever borne by Caesar in the history of the world in the U.S. military. Everyone from the Commander in Chief to the special operators of the Navy Seals performed well within their vocations to protect the citizens of this country, to bring justice to a wicked man, and to carry out God’s wrath on a wrongdoer. They are all to be commended. And, as an American, there is reason to celebrate.

via Steadfast Lutherans » How should a Christian react to the killing of Osama bin Laden?.

About Gene Veith

Professor of Literature at Patrick Henry College, the Director of the Cranach Institute at Concordia Theological Seminary, a columnist for World Magazine and TableTalk, and the author of 18 books on different facets of Christianity & Culture.

  • http://somewebsite.somedomain.com C-CS

    celebrate that our BEST allowed the murdering muslim- obl to meet lucifer-his god–and in hell no less..
    C-CS

  • http://somewebsite.somedomain.com C-CS

    celebrate that our BEST allowed the murdering muslim- obl to meet lucifer-his god–and in hell no less..
    C-CS

  • Pete

    Some caution with regard to item #4 above: I’m not certain that there is a 100% correlation of the Israelites’ situation with ours. We (America) are not God’s chosen people. There was a very real sense in which the enemies of the Israelites were God’s enemies. Not so with us. We are a modern nation-state which has just prevailed over an enemy – a terrorist. Some, I fear, miss this distinction.
    Nevertheless, celebration over the death of Bin Laden is absolutely appropriate. Putting an end to him has been a lengthy, costly, dangerous and worthy endeavor. Celebration in the same sense that Hillary would have celebrated after “killing” Everest or that the allies displayed at the completion of WWII or as a city turns out after its team brings home the Stanley Cup is most appropriate. I think item #3 above sums it up most succinctly. If we’re not cautious, our celebration can cross the line into what might be called unseemly.

  • Pete

    Some caution with regard to item #4 above: I’m not certain that there is a 100% correlation of the Israelites’ situation with ours. We (America) are not God’s chosen people. There was a very real sense in which the enemies of the Israelites were God’s enemies. Not so with us. We are a modern nation-state which has just prevailed over an enemy – a terrorist. Some, I fear, miss this distinction.
    Nevertheless, celebration over the death of Bin Laden is absolutely appropriate. Putting an end to him has been a lengthy, costly, dangerous and worthy endeavor. Celebration in the same sense that Hillary would have celebrated after “killing” Everest or that the allies displayed at the completion of WWII or as a city turns out after its team brings home the Stanley Cup is most appropriate. I think item #3 above sums it up most succinctly. If we’re not cautious, our celebration can cross the line into what might be called unseemly.

  • SKPeterson

    Check out the BJS comments – erstwhile commentator Carl Vehse and Pr. Jacob Ehrhard provide an interesting commentary in the form of a letter from Luther to a German prince about to go off to war against the Turks. I think it strikes an appropriate balance.

  • SKPeterson

    Check out the BJS comments – erstwhile commentator Carl Vehse and Pr. Jacob Ehrhard provide an interesting commentary in the form of a letter from Luther to a German prince about to go off to war against the Turks. I think it strikes an appropriate balance.

  • Andy

    FYI: These points were written by Rev. Jacob Ehrhard. Norm Fisher posted them on the BJS site.

  • Andy

    FYI: These points were written by Rev. Jacob Ehrhard. Norm Fisher posted them on the BJS site.

  • http://enterthevein.wordpress.com J. Dean

    We rejoice at the justice of God.

    We take no plesure in the death of anybody, righteous or wicked.

  • http://enterthevein.wordpress.com J. Dean

    We rejoice at the justice of God.

    We take no plesure in the death of anybody, righteous or wicked.

  • Rev. Jacob Ehrhard

    Whoah! I’ve been a longtime reader of this blog; I certainly didn’t expect to see my little note show up here. I suppose this would be a good time to offer my first comment.

    With respect to #4, the point isn’t in comparing the people of Israel to America as God’s chosen people, but rather that the saints of the Old Testament (who were righteous by faith) rejoiced when God meted out justice and killed their enemies. Osama bin Laden was an enemy of both Church and State. It is not contrary to Scripture for a person of faith to rejoice that God is just and executes justice by the sword (or SEAL) of the civil authorities.

    I cannot recommend those works of Luther highly enough. “Whether Soldiers, too, Can Be Saved” is also highly valuable in considering vocation, which I know is one of this blog’s main topics.

  • Rev. Jacob Ehrhard

    Whoah! I’ve been a longtime reader of this blog; I certainly didn’t expect to see my little note show up here. I suppose this would be a good time to offer my first comment.

    With respect to #4, the point isn’t in comparing the people of Israel to America as God’s chosen people, but rather that the saints of the Old Testament (who were righteous by faith) rejoiced when God meted out justice and killed their enemies. Osama bin Laden was an enemy of both Church and State. It is not contrary to Scripture for a person of faith to rejoice that God is just and executes justice by the sword (or SEAL) of the civil authorities.

    I cannot recommend those works of Luther highly enough. “Whether Soldiers, too, Can Be Saved” is also highly valuable in considering vocation, which I know is one of this blog’s main topics.

  • http://www.geneveith.com Gene Veith

    So these are from Pastor Ehrhard, rather than Norm Fisher, who posted it on his blog. Thanks for the correction. Sorry for the incorrect attribution. I fixed it. Do keep commenting, Pastor Ehrhard, especially on this thread!

  • http://www.geneveith.com Gene Veith

    So these are from Pastor Ehrhard, rather than Norm Fisher, who posted it on his blog. Thanks for the correction. Sorry for the incorrect attribution. I fixed it. Do keep commenting, Pastor Ehrhard, especially on this thread!

  • http://www.newreformationpress.com Patrick Kyle

    Why are we intent on telling people how they should feel?

  • http://www.newreformationpress.com Patrick Kyle

    Why are we intent on telling people how they should feel?

  • Rev. Jacob Ehrhard

    @Patrick: A family member asked how she should feel about the death of Osama bin Laden. So I wrote this note. Also to answer my own internal question, “How should I feel about this?” Some other people have found it useful as well.

    I suppose it’s useful to tell others how they should feel if God tells us how we should feel. Then, if you feel differently, you know that you have sins to confess. Feelings aren’t neutral; they’re also part of our fallen nature.

    @Dr. Veith: Thanks for the mention. But let’s not forget about Norm. I’ve had the pleasure of meeting him several times and without him, there would be a giant cyber-hole where we now find much traditional Lutheran stuff online.

  • Rev. Jacob Ehrhard

    @Patrick: A family member asked how she should feel about the death of Osama bin Laden. So I wrote this note. Also to answer my own internal question, “How should I feel about this?” Some other people have found it useful as well.

    I suppose it’s useful to tell others how they should feel if God tells us how we should feel. Then, if you feel differently, you know that you have sins to confess. Feelings aren’t neutral; they’re also part of our fallen nature.

    @Dr. Veith: Thanks for the mention. But let’s not forget about Norm. I’ve had the pleasure of meeting him several times and without him, there would be a giant cyber-hole where we now find much traditional Lutheran stuff online.

  • Carl Vehse

    Speaking of “feelings” Iowahawk expressed his in yesterday’s column, “American Pride is Back Out of the Closet!“:

    Well, I can happily report that I completely underestimated the skill, courage, and perseverence of America’s military. And, almost as happily, I can report that I also completely underestimated the capacity of America’s erstwhile “peace community” for turning on a dime and embracing the kind of all-American xenophobic flag-waving bloodlust they only recently decried. So today I stand proudly with my new friends of the formerly antiwar left in a mindlessly jingoistic salute to President Obama for an extralegal military assassination well done.

    Who is to credit for this rebirth in American national unity? First and foremost, we must cite the leadership of President Obama. Like many Americans – and the Nobel Peace Prize committee – I naively feared he was actually serious when he initially proposed shutting down Guantanamo, trying detainees in American civilian courts, and prior consultation with the international community. Little did I know that this untested young Commander-in-Chief would muster the courage to read his weekly Gallup numbers and, in one daring unilateral extra-judicial targeted hit job, toss aside every single idiotic foreign policy principle of his election campaign. Perhaps most satisfyingly, it was a mission made possible thanks to information extracted by methods he previously banned as “illegal torture”…

    Neither can we forget the watchdogs of America’s press, who have shown unprecedented ethical flexibility in shedding their long-held Gandhi moralism and embracing their inner Rambo.

    Thanks to leaders like these, American pride is temporarily back out of the closet. And I for one take great personal satisfaction in knowing that when I’m high-fiving a random fellow American and robotically chanting “USA! USA!” at the news that Bin Laden is finally shark chum, there’s a pretty good chance that the guy was, only a few years ago, denying his love for unauthorized secret CIA-planned assassinations. Welcome to the pride parade everybody!

  • Carl Vehse

    Speaking of “feelings” Iowahawk expressed his in yesterday’s column, “American Pride is Back Out of the Closet!“:

    Well, I can happily report that I completely underestimated the skill, courage, and perseverence of America’s military. And, almost as happily, I can report that I also completely underestimated the capacity of America’s erstwhile “peace community” for turning on a dime and embracing the kind of all-American xenophobic flag-waving bloodlust they only recently decried. So today I stand proudly with my new friends of the formerly antiwar left in a mindlessly jingoistic salute to President Obama for an extralegal military assassination well done.

    Who is to credit for this rebirth in American national unity? First and foremost, we must cite the leadership of President Obama. Like many Americans – and the Nobel Peace Prize committee – I naively feared he was actually serious when he initially proposed shutting down Guantanamo, trying detainees in American civilian courts, and prior consultation with the international community. Little did I know that this untested young Commander-in-Chief would muster the courage to read his weekly Gallup numbers and, in one daring unilateral extra-judicial targeted hit job, toss aside every single idiotic foreign policy principle of his election campaign. Perhaps most satisfyingly, it was a mission made possible thanks to information extracted by methods he previously banned as “illegal torture”…

    Neither can we forget the watchdogs of America’s press, who have shown unprecedented ethical flexibility in shedding their long-held Gandhi moralism and embracing their inner Rambo.

    Thanks to leaders like these, American pride is temporarily back out of the closet. And I for one take great personal satisfaction in knowing that when I’m high-fiving a random fellow American and robotically chanting “USA! USA!” at the news that Bin Laden is finally shark chum, there’s a pretty good chance that the guy was, only a few years ago, denying his love for unauthorized secret CIA-planned assassinations. Welcome to the pride parade everybody!

  • DonS

    Patrick @ 8 is on to something. Different friends of mine have had different reactions to the news of Bin Laden’s death. Some have rejoiced — especially my son and his friends in their military school, who felt the brotherhood of celebrating with those in their ranks who successfully completed this mission. Others have been thankful that a murderous terrorist has been stopped from killing other innocent people. Others still are contemplative, glad for the news but regretting that someone has entered eternal damnation, eve so vile a murderer as Bin Laden. I cannot find fault with any of these reactions, and they reflect the different gifts and strengths that God has given us as members of the Body.

  • DonS

    Patrick @ 8 is on to something. Different friends of mine have had different reactions to the news of Bin Laden’s death. Some have rejoiced — especially my son and his friends in their military school, who felt the brotherhood of celebrating with those in their ranks who successfully completed this mission. Others have been thankful that a murderous terrorist has been stopped from killing other innocent people. Others still are contemplative, glad for the news but regretting that someone has entered eternal damnation, eve so vile a murderer as Bin Laden. I cannot find fault with any of these reactions, and they reflect the different gifts and strengths that God has given us as members of the Body.

  • Carl Vehse

    How should Christians react to Steve Dunham’s refusal to release photos (or videos) of Osama’s body for the American people to see because it might upset Islamoterrorists who could then try to harm our U.S. soldiers and citizens?

  • Carl Vehse

    How should Christians react to Steve Dunham’s refusal to release photos (or videos) of Osama’s body for the American people to see because it might upset Islamoterrorists who could then try to harm our U.S. soldiers and citizens?

  • Carl Vehse

    OK….this is getting weird…are they passing the Bin Laden picture around the Senate?

    “We are now learning that various Senators have seen the dead Bin Laden picture while the President debates whether to release it to the public or not. It almost sounds like they are passing it around in the Senate lunchroom!”

  • Carl Vehse

    OK….this is getting weird…are they passing the Bin Laden picture around the Senate?

    “We are now learning that various Senators have seen the dead Bin Laden picture while the President debates whether to release it to the public or not. It almost sounds like they are passing it around in the Senate lunchroom!”

  • Grace

    Carl,

    It has just been reported that the ‘death photo’ will NOT be released.

    Obama: I won’t release bin Laden death photos

    May 4, 2011 1:24 PM
    Posted by Brian Montopoli

    http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20059739-503544.html?tag=breakingnews

  • Grace

    Carl,

    It has just been reported that the ‘death photo’ will NOT be released.

    Obama: I won’t release bin Laden death photos

    May 4, 2011 1:24 PM
    Posted by Brian Montopoli

    http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20059739-503544.html?tag=breakingnews

  • Carl Vehse

    That means Senate apparatchiks get to see the photo, but we peons will have to wait until it shows up on WikiLeaks.

  • Carl Vehse

    That means Senate apparatchiks get to see the photo, but we peons will have to wait until it shows up on WikiLeaks.

  • Carl Vehse

    Of course, if you want a copy of the photo, there’s always this method.

  • Carl Vehse

    Of course, if you want a copy of the photo, there’s always this method.

  • http://www.thirduse.com fws

    he was unarmed and shot in the chest and head.

    He appeared to be a very evil man.

    I have mixed feelings.

  • http://www.thirduse.com fws

    he was unarmed and shot in the chest and head.

    He appeared to be a very evil man.

    I have mixed feelings.

  • Carl Vehse

    #17: “I have mixed feelings.

    Yes, some have similarly acknowledged that Osama is dead, but that it was too quick.

  • Carl Vehse

    #17: “I have mixed feelings.

    Yes, some have similarly acknowledged that Osama is dead, but that it was too quick.

  • Pete

    Rev. Ehrhard@6 – I didn’t mean to imply that you confused God’s chosen people with Americans. I was, in fact, pretty certain you didn’t/wouldn’t. Just pointing out that it’s a common fox paws among American evangelicals.

    fws @17 – How mixed? 50/50? I’m guessing the navy seals had mixed feelings, too – probably on the order of 98/2.

  • Pete

    Rev. Ehrhard@6 – I didn’t mean to imply that you confused God’s chosen people with Americans. I was, in fact, pretty certain you didn’t/wouldn’t. Just pointing out that it’s a common fox paws among American evangelicals.

    fws @17 – How mixed? 50/50? I’m guessing the navy seals had mixed feelings, too – probably on the order of 98/2.

  • Porcell

    Actually, the Seals in the dark with shots firing around and Bin Laden even unarmed showing resistance did what they had to do on the order of 100/0 feeling, just as the aircraft carrier Carl Vinson people did when they ceremoniously dumped him to the bottom of the Arabian Sea.

    My only regret is that he wasn’t water-boarded at Gitmo before being tried before a military commission and hung or shot. He actually got off rather easily with a quick finale. This man was pure evil.

  • Porcell

    Actually, the Seals in the dark with shots firing around and Bin Laden even unarmed showing resistance did what they had to do on the order of 100/0 feeling, just as the aircraft carrier Carl Vinson people did when they ceremoniously dumped him to the bottom of the Arabian Sea.

    My only regret is that he wasn’t water-boarded at Gitmo before being tried before a military commission and hung or shot. He actually got off rather easily with a quick finale. This man was pure evil.

  • David T.

    Rev. Ehrhard
    I know this is this is a bit late (I normally read this blog only once a week or so), but well done. You have aptly applied doctrine to life.

  • David T.

    Rev. Ehrhard
    I know this is this is a bit late (I normally read this blog only once a week or so), but well done. You have aptly applied doctrine to life.

  • Grace

    Haman was a wicked man, when he and his sons were hanged by the gallows the Jews rejoiced, and rightly so. The Jews were allowed to defend themselves, and so are we, who have lost many because of 9-11 and other outrageous attacks on the U.S. and our citizens, and others as well.

    12 And the king said unto Esther the queen, The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the palace, and the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? now what is thy petition? and it shall be granted thee: or what is thy request further? and it shall be done.

    13 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews which are in Shushan to do to morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.

    14 And the king commanded it so to be done: and the decree was given at Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons.

    15 For the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan; but on the prey they laid not their hand.

    16 But the other Jews that were in the king’s provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,

    17 On the thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.

    18 But the Jews that were at Shushan assembled together on the thirteenth day thereof, and on the fourteenth thereof; and on the fifteenth day of the same they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.

    19 Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.

    20 And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that were in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, both nigh and far,

    21 To stablish this among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,

    22 As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.

    23 And the Jews undertook to do as they had begun, and as Mordecai had written unto them;

    24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had cast Pur, that is, the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them;

    25 But when Esther came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked device, which he devised against the Jews, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.

    26 Wherefore they called these days Purim after the name of Pur. Therefore for all the words of this letter, and of that which they had seen concerning this matter, and which had come unto them,

    Esther 9

  • Grace

    Haman was a wicked man, when he and his sons were hanged by the gallows the Jews rejoiced, and rightly so. The Jews were allowed to defend themselves, and so are we, who have lost many because of 9-11 and other outrageous attacks on the U.S. and our citizens, and others as well.

    12 And the king said unto Esther the queen, The Jews have slain and destroyed five hundred men in Shushan the palace, and the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? now what is thy petition? and it shall be granted thee: or what is thy request further? and it shall be done.

    13 Then said Esther, If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews which are in Shushan to do to morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.

    14 And the king commanded it so to be done: and the decree was given at Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons.

    15 For the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men at Shushan; but on the prey they laid not their hand.

    16 But the other Jews that were in the king’s provinces gathered themselves together, and stood for their lives, and had rest from their enemies, and slew of their foes seventy and five thousand, but they laid not their hands on the prey,

    17 On the thirteenth day of the month Adar; and on the fourteenth day of the same rested they, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.

    18 But the Jews that were at Shushan assembled together on the thirteenth day thereof, and on the fourteenth thereof; and on the fifteenth day of the same they rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness.

    19 Therefore the Jews of the villages, that dwelt in the unwalled towns, made the fourteenth day of the month Adar a day of gladness and feasting, and a good day, and of sending portions one to another.

    20 And Mordecai wrote these things, and sent letters unto all the Jews that were in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus, both nigh and far,

    21 To stablish this among them, that they should keep the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same, yearly,

    22 As the days wherein the Jews rested from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to joy, and from mourning into a good day: that they should make them days of feasting and joy, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor.

    23 And the Jews undertook to do as they had begun, and as Mordecai had written unto them;

    24 Because Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, the enemy of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy them, and had cast Pur, that is, the lot, to consume them, and to destroy them;

    25 But when Esther came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked device, which he devised against the Jews, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.

    26 Wherefore they called these days Purim after the name of Pur. Therefore for all the words of this letter, and of that which they had seen concerning this matter, and which had come unto them,

    Esther 9


CLOSE | X

HIDE | X