Will technology replace schools?

Stephen Pearstein profiles Sal Kahn, who teaches math via YouTube videos, making the case that online technology may soon make traditional schools obsolete:

If education moves to a teaching model in which students learn through online tutorials, exercises and evaluations created by a handful of the best educators in the world, then how many teachers will we need preparing lesson plans and delivering lectures and grading quizzes and tests? Surely we’ll need some for one-on-one tutoring, or to run small group discussions, or teach things that can’t or shouldn’t be taught online. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, there’s likely to be fewer than we have now — fewer but better-paid with more interesting jobs — just as has happened in nearly every other industry that has gone through a similar transformation.

The disruption doesn’t stop there. If students are allowed to progress through each subject at their own pace, they won’t be second-graders or sixth-graders any longer, since at any time they are likely to be at different grades in different subjects. Indeed, the whole notion of a 45-minute “class,” or the six-hour “school day,” or even the August through June school “calendar” — the entire framework of the educational experience — will become somewhat irrelevant. And as Khan loves to point out, grading will suddenly become simple: Everyone gets an A in every course, with the only question being how long it takes each student to earn it.

Given these implications, you can understand why the education establishment has been in no hurry to embrace a digital future. The battles over standardized testing and adoption of common national standards were just the warm-up. Now that the opposition to them has been largely overcome, capital and creative talent will pour in to develop both the hardware and the software of the new education technology.

Over the next decade, look for teaching to be transformed from an art into something much closer to a science, look for learning to become highly individualized, and look for education to go from being a cottage industry to one that takes full advantage of the economies of scale and scope. And as in every other industry, look for quality to go up and cost to go down.

via Steven Pearlstein: Mark them tardy to the revolution – The Washington Post.

The corollary is that schools would be replaced with homeschooling!  But don’t working parents want someplace to park their kids for the day?  That reason alone will is likely to keep schools alive, even after they are obsolete.

I do think that human-to-human teaching is much superior to mechanical instruction, but some online teaching–such as  my daughter’s Latin classes for homeschoolers are real time, with genuine teacher-to-student and student-to-student interaction–whereas many of our progressive schools have become mechanistic and dehumanizing.

What do you think about this?  What could it mean, say, for Christian and parochial schools?

HT:  Jackie

About Gene Veith

Professor of Literature at Patrick Henry College, the Director of the Cranach Institute at Concordia Theological Seminary, a columnist for World Magazine and TableTalk, and the author of 18 books on different facets of Christianity & Culture.

  • Pete

    Very interesting. Some of the documentaries I’ve seen in recent years surrounding the issue of inner city education have been shocking in terms of the inability of teachers to maintain class discipline. It seems that the the approach cited above would simply remove in-class behavior from the equation altogether.

    Does anyone think computers are making jobs extinct? How many jobs would there be in education if this became the norm compared with now? I mean, if you no longer have a school, you no longer have a school janitor or cafeteria staff, etc. Kinda like what happened to travel agents – nobody needs them now with Kayak and such.

  • Pete

    Very interesting. Some of the documentaries I’ve seen in recent years surrounding the issue of inner city education have been shocking in terms of the inability of teachers to maintain class discipline. It seems that the the approach cited above would simply remove in-class behavior from the equation altogether.

    Does anyone think computers are making jobs extinct? How many jobs would there be in education if this became the norm compared with now? I mean, if you no longer have a school, you no longer have a school janitor or cafeteria staff, etc. Kinda like what happened to travel agents – nobody needs them now with Kayak and such.

  • http://capnsaltyslongvoyage.blogspot.com Dave

    As a person who teaches homeschoolers via the Internet it’s always interesting to see the way we compare technology and people in teaching. The fact is that no matter how much technology we throw at people, true teaching is still a matter of discipleship. We gather our students around us and help them see their work and life in a more mature way. Technology doesn’t replace the teacher, except for the bad teacher who is only interested in content delivery. Technology, rightly used, enhances the ability of the teacher to bring needed experiences to the student.

  • http://capnsaltyslongvoyage.blogspot.com Dave

    As a person who teaches homeschoolers via the Internet it’s always interesting to see the way we compare technology and people in teaching. The fact is that no matter how much technology we throw at people, true teaching is still a matter of discipleship. We gather our students around us and help them see their work and life in a more mature way. Technology doesn’t replace the teacher, except for the bad teacher who is only interested in content delivery. Technology, rightly used, enhances the ability of the teacher to bring needed experiences to the student.

  • Pete

    Dave (@2) makes a great point – more is transacted in the teaching of, say, algebra than algebra.

  • Pete

    Dave (@2) makes a great point – more is transacted in the teaching of, say, algebra than algebra.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    “But don’t working parents want someplace to park their kids for the day? That reason alone will is likely to keep schools alive, even after they are obsolete.”
    sorry, I know this is going to offend quite a few teachers, but honestly I thought that was the only thing keeping schools alive for quite sometime.

  • http://www.utah-lutheran.blogspot.com Bror Erickson

    “But don’t working parents want someplace to park their kids for the day? That reason alone will is likely to keep schools alive, even after they are obsolete.”
    sorry, I know this is going to offend quite a few teachers, but honestly I thought that was the only thing keeping schools alive for quite sometime.

  • Anonymous Public School Survivor

    In my experience, those who are homeschooled tend to be more mature than those who are not. Mature people do come from public/parochial schools, but they are fewer in number. It seems that those who were homeschooled were more in control of their emotions, and were less susceptible to depression. They also are better adjusted for social interaction. I suspect that this is because of the abundance of separatist cliques and teacher favoritism in the schools (both public and parochial). I agree with comment #4. Today’s pre-college educational institutions have become childcare centers. Contrary to seemingly popular belief, homeschooling is not synonymous with spoon-feeding. If anything, public schools spoon-feed students. A friend of mine who went through homeschool was able to independently study a topic in-depth for four or five years, and graduate from high school in three. How many people who go through the public school system get out in less than 12 years? And why should they? I went through 15 years of public education. (In case anyone was wondering, this includes 3 years of preschool.) I attended a Christian college afterward. The first 15 years caused me to be apathetic about almost everything. College was able to excise a significant portion of that apathy. (I still have some growing up to do. Apathy is really nothing if not selfishness.) Now, I have an interest in social interactions and friendship, but at the end of high school, I didn’t. I failed two classes in high school, because I did not have a computer that could use the internet, a word processing program, and a printer. (I didn’t have time to type at school; I was not allowed in the computer lab during my two “study halls” (re: nap times) of senior year, and the bus arrived at school five minutes before classes started and left five minutes after. College was much easier in this respect. I had the tools available to finish my work. I graduated cum laude (3.52) from college. I managed a 3.0 in high school.

  • Anonymous Public School Survivor

    In my experience, those who are homeschooled tend to be more mature than those who are not. Mature people do come from public/parochial schools, but they are fewer in number. It seems that those who were homeschooled were more in control of their emotions, and were less susceptible to depression. They also are better adjusted for social interaction. I suspect that this is because of the abundance of separatist cliques and teacher favoritism in the schools (both public and parochial). I agree with comment #4. Today’s pre-college educational institutions have become childcare centers. Contrary to seemingly popular belief, homeschooling is not synonymous with spoon-feeding. If anything, public schools spoon-feed students. A friend of mine who went through homeschool was able to independently study a topic in-depth for four or five years, and graduate from high school in three. How many people who go through the public school system get out in less than 12 years? And why should they? I went through 15 years of public education. (In case anyone was wondering, this includes 3 years of preschool.) I attended a Christian college afterward. The first 15 years caused me to be apathetic about almost everything. College was able to excise a significant portion of that apathy. (I still have some growing up to do. Apathy is really nothing if not selfishness.) Now, I have an interest in social interactions and friendship, but at the end of high school, I didn’t. I failed two classes in high school, because I did not have a computer that could use the internet, a word processing program, and a printer. (I didn’t have time to type at school; I was not allowed in the computer lab during my two “study halls” (re: nap times) of senior year, and the bus arrived at school five minutes before classes started and left five minutes after. College was much easier in this respect. I had the tools available to finish my work. I graduated cum laude (3.52) from college. I managed a 3.0 in high school.

  • Louis

    My experience is different our frind at #5. It depends on the individual and their personality, the institution, individual teachers, the culture of the community, especially regarding learning, parental support etc etc. But especiall parental support. I firmly believe that many of the success stories coming out of the homeschool communities would have been success stories in private schools and public (ie government) schools – because the parents were there, inspiring, encouraging or threatening, as the case may be.

    It is the will to do well, and the parental support in that, that makes the difference, NOT the system.

    Personally, I’ll rue the day that PC’s replace teachers completely. What should happen is that techology should be used as the great tool it is to support the teacher.

    Schooling is also about much more than just academic learning. Society is complicated – it is unfair, and you have to deal with everybody from the mediocre to the borderline insane to the snobs to the super-achievers. School is a microcosm where you meet and interact with all these types. When managed well, it is a a great school (pardon the weak pun) for life. When managed badly, it can destroy.

    All to say – where education is concerned, wisdom is essential, and the obvious realisation that there are no perfect systems, approaches, curricula, schools, homeschools etc., and we should keep that in mind when dealing with our fellow man and their choices for their children.

  • Louis

    My experience is different our frind at #5. It depends on the individual and their personality, the institution, individual teachers, the culture of the community, especially regarding learning, parental support etc etc. But especiall parental support. I firmly believe that many of the success stories coming out of the homeschool communities would have been success stories in private schools and public (ie government) schools – because the parents were there, inspiring, encouraging or threatening, as the case may be.

    It is the will to do well, and the parental support in that, that makes the difference, NOT the system.

    Personally, I’ll rue the day that PC’s replace teachers completely. What should happen is that techology should be used as the great tool it is to support the teacher.

    Schooling is also about much more than just academic learning. Society is complicated – it is unfair, and you have to deal with everybody from the mediocre to the borderline insane to the snobs to the super-achievers. School is a microcosm where you meet and interact with all these types. When managed well, it is a a great school (pardon the weak pun) for life. When managed badly, it can destroy.

    All to say – where education is concerned, wisdom is essential, and the obvious realisation that there are no perfect systems, approaches, curricula, schools, homeschools etc., and we should keep that in mind when dealing with our fellow man and their choices for their children.

  • Louis

    BTW, I have experience of all these – I’ve been on the board of a private school, with my children attending. We’ve homeschooled, and currently, our kids are in public schools – and I’m on the SCC (School – Community Council) for one of the schools. Furthermore, my dad was (and is) in education – High School and College, Mission Board to Government to Private, 2 countries, since 1962 till today. And my wife has been an EA (Educational Assistant) too. I’m acutely aware of educational issues.

  • Louis

    BTW, I have experience of all these – I’ve been on the board of a private school, with my children attending. We’ve homeschooled, and currently, our kids are in public schools – and I’m on the SCC (School – Community Council) for one of the schools. Furthermore, my dad was (and is) in education – High School and College, Mission Board to Government to Private, 2 countries, since 1962 till today. And my wife has been an EA (Educational Assistant) too. I’m acutely aware of educational issues.

  • http://facebook.com/mesamike Mike Westfall

    BUT WHAT ABOUT SOCIALIZATION?????

  • http://facebook.com/mesamike Mike Westfall

    BUT WHAT ABOUT SOCIALIZATION?????

  • jbo

    The homeschooling question that arises is that those that choose to homeschool are highly educated, involved in the arts, and economically intelligent. If the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree, homeschooling these types of students does produce great results. Not nearly enough research has been done as to homeschooling’s effects on the children of poor, drop-out level, art deprived inner city/rural, and jobless poor adults. I know what my personal hypothesis might be.
    Schools have been too lazy too long about what education is. As long as education remains reading and worksheets then yes, schools can be replaced by any matter of technology that can deliver those video tutorials and such multiple choice, fill in the blank “assessments.” But if schools are places where actual, realistic, authentic, learning is to take place where students work together to dissect lawn mower engines in an attempt to get them to work again, construct and perform plays, puppets, poetry for each other, parents, grandparents, and the community then there is a need for schools. Schools are communities. Schools need to be built around the idea that they are community of learners and families and not just a factory, churning out a product of “intelligence” (which we’d be hard pressed to find a consensus on anyways). A community produces art, knowledge, compassion, mercy, fellowship, and, in the case of parochial education, discipleship.

  • jbo

    The homeschooling question that arises is that those that choose to homeschool are highly educated, involved in the arts, and economically intelligent. If the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree, homeschooling these types of students does produce great results. Not nearly enough research has been done as to homeschooling’s effects on the children of poor, drop-out level, art deprived inner city/rural, and jobless poor adults. I know what my personal hypothesis might be.
    Schools have been too lazy too long about what education is. As long as education remains reading and worksheets then yes, schools can be replaced by any matter of technology that can deliver those video tutorials and such multiple choice, fill in the blank “assessments.” But if schools are places where actual, realistic, authentic, learning is to take place where students work together to dissect lawn mower engines in an attempt to get them to work again, construct and perform plays, puppets, poetry for each other, parents, grandparents, and the community then there is a need for schools. Schools are communities. Schools need to be built around the idea that they are community of learners and families and not just a factory, churning out a product of “intelligence” (which we’d be hard pressed to find a consensus on anyways). A community produces art, knowledge, compassion, mercy, fellowship, and, in the case of parochial education, discipleship.

  • Ryan

    jbo, So Are you saying there is no hope with my C- average high school educated (jobless since she is a homemaker) wife classically homeschooling my daughter, and we live in a rural area with few cultural opportunities to boot, let alone my take home is under 30,000 (certainly not poor, but not wealthy either). My poor wife, its amazing she appreciates any culture at all with her background, she wasn’t even reading grade level out of HS… But she does amazingly well know. Almost like when she got away from the “system” she started to thrive.

    Yeah, I got an education, I’m a pastor, but I’m not the primary caregiver/teacher. The Internet has been s big boon for us… In fact since our area is definitely art/culturally deprived… Homeschooling was a priority for us that we could introduce our daughter to these things.

  • Ryan

    jbo, So Are you saying there is no hope with my C- average high school educated (jobless since she is a homemaker) wife classically homeschooling my daughter, and we live in a rural area with few cultural opportunities to boot, let alone my take home is under 30,000 (certainly not poor, but not wealthy either). My poor wife, its amazing she appreciates any culture at all with her background, she wasn’t even reading grade level out of HS… But she does amazingly well know. Almost like when she got away from the “system” she started to thrive.

    Yeah, I got an education, I’m a pastor, but I’m not the primary caregiver/teacher. The Internet has been s big boon for us… In fact since our area is definitely art/culturally deprived… Homeschooling was a priority for us that we could introduce our daughter to these things.

  • http://womanofthehouse-blog.blogspot.com/ womanofthehouse

    Education is about a lot more than filling students with facts. It involves shaping them as persons, forming their minds, teaching them to think, exciting them about learning, and ordering their affections, as Augustine said. Education, no matter what form it takes, involves discipleship. That’s why it’s critical to consider who or what is teaching the child. A machine may deliver content, but it won’t turn most children on to learning or mentor him effectively. The human element is important, whether that human is a paid professional or a dedicated parent. Education patterned after the factory is deadening and soul-stultifying. The best schools seek to avoid this whether they are traditional brick and mortar schools or homeschools.

    I teach for an online school (grades seven through twelve), so I’m not against the use of technology in education. Through technology I’m able to teach students all over the world who probably would not otherwise even think to study my subject (music history and theory). It’s been a blessing to me and to my students (I hope!). No matter where I am teaching, though, I am keenly aware that my responsibility as their teacher goes far beyond my subject matter. (See paragraph #1.)

    It is true that most homeschooling families are at least middle class and generally educated, but we all probably know exceptions to that generalization. Cultural opportunities are good but not strictly necessary, and most homeschooling families are very creative about finding or making a wide variety of opportunities for their children. Money is also helpful but I know many homeschoolers who successfully homeschool on a shoestring, and I don’t know a single homeschooling mother who is satisfied with the education she received herself and who does not study on her own. Being poor, rural, and poorly educated may create obstacles, but they can be overcome by the dedicated parent.

  • http://womanofthehouse-blog.blogspot.com/ womanofthehouse

    Education is about a lot more than filling students with facts. It involves shaping them as persons, forming their minds, teaching them to think, exciting them about learning, and ordering their affections, as Augustine said. Education, no matter what form it takes, involves discipleship. That’s why it’s critical to consider who or what is teaching the child. A machine may deliver content, but it won’t turn most children on to learning or mentor him effectively. The human element is important, whether that human is a paid professional or a dedicated parent. Education patterned after the factory is deadening and soul-stultifying. The best schools seek to avoid this whether they are traditional brick and mortar schools or homeschools.

    I teach for an online school (grades seven through twelve), so I’m not against the use of technology in education. Through technology I’m able to teach students all over the world who probably would not otherwise even think to study my subject (music history and theory). It’s been a blessing to me and to my students (I hope!). No matter where I am teaching, though, I am keenly aware that my responsibility as their teacher goes far beyond my subject matter. (See paragraph #1.)

    It is true that most homeschooling families are at least middle class and generally educated, but we all probably know exceptions to that generalization. Cultural opportunities are good but not strictly necessary, and most homeschooling families are very creative about finding or making a wide variety of opportunities for their children. Money is also helpful but I know many homeschoolers who successfully homeschool on a shoestring, and I don’t know a single homeschooling mother who is satisfied with the education she received herself and who does not study on her own. Being poor, rural, and poorly educated may create obstacles, but they can be overcome by the dedicated parent.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    I imagine that the Internet will make teachers obsolete around the same time that it makes doctors and nurses obsolete. After all, if teaching is merely the presenting of bits of knowledge, then isn’t medicine just the answering of a few routine questions, the filling out of a simple form? Such technology might work for some people in some situations, but it would doubtless prove a terrible idea for all people in all situations. It’s too reductionistic. Too, oh, what’s the word, dehumanizing.

    One can see the flaw in this article quite clearly in this phrase: “exercises and evaluations created by a handful of the best educators in the world”. One wonders: what makes an educator one of the “best in the world”? Is it skill in crafting “exercises and evaluations”? Well, no. That’s not teaching. Teaching is a human enterprise, and it requires human interaction and judgment. Might as well argue that pastors will be replaced by YouTube videos any minute now because we’ve collected some really fine sermons. Done!

    Of course, if YouTube videos could reduce our need for teachers, then surely books would have done the same thing decades, if not centuries, ago — all that information is out there. Huh, I wonder why books alone never replaced schools? How, exactly, does the Internet change the game, according to Mr. Pearlstein? His article kinda sounds like so much warmed-over digital triumphalism.

    Also, I’ll be honest, homeschoolers these days are way too defensive. And not just defensive as in “let us do our thing”, but defensive as in “we’re always better than you”. As a man who received what I’m fairly sure was an excellent public education (yes, ending almost two decades ago now, so factor that in, if you must), I get tired of it. And, if anecdotes must rule this discourse, then surely the fact that my wife, who had a fairly middle-of-the-road public education, nonetheless attended several top-tier universities for undergraduate and graduate education, well, means something.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    I imagine that the Internet will make teachers obsolete around the same time that it makes doctors and nurses obsolete. After all, if teaching is merely the presenting of bits of knowledge, then isn’t medicine just the answering of a few routine questions, the filling out of a simple form? Such technology might work for some people in some situations, but it would doubtless prove a terrible idea for all people in all situations. It’s too reductionistic. Too, oh, what’s the word, dehumanizing.

    One can see the flaw in this article quite clearly in this phrase: “exercises and evaluations created by a handful of the best educators in the world”. One wonders: what makes an educator one of the “best in the world”? Is it skill in crafting “exercises and evaluations”? Well, no. That’s not teaching. Teaching is a human enterprise, and it requires human interaction and judgment. Might as well argue that pastors will be replaced by YouTube videos any minute now because we’ve collected some really fine sermons. Done!

    Of course, if YouTube videos could reduce our need for teachers, then surely books would have done the same thing decades, if not centuries, ago — all that information is out there. Huh, I wonder why books alone never replaced schools? How, exactly, does the Internet change the game, according to Mr. Pearlstein? His article kinda sounds like so much warmed-over digital triumphalism.

    Also, I’ll be honest, homeschoolers these days are way too defensive. And not just defensive as in “let us do our thing”, but defensive as in “we’re always better than you”. As a man who received what I’m fairly sure was an excellent public education (yes, ending almost two decades ago now, so factor that in, if you must), I get tired of it. And, if anecdotes must rule this discourse, then surely the fact that my wife, who had a fairly middle-of-the-road public education, nonetheless attended several top-tier universities for undergraduate and graduate education, well, means something.

  • DonS

    Homeschoolers use technology all of the time. But, live human teachers will always be necessary to effective learning by children. The best teaching is discipleship, which involves modeling and a huge time commitment. It is something only parents can truly do effectively. And the best homeschooling involves a community of parents working together, emphasizing each of their particular strengths, to teach the community of students, often aided by the incredible technology available to us today.

  • DonS

    Homeschoolers use technology all of the time. But, live human teachers will always be necessary to effective learning by children. The best teaching is discipleship, which involves modeling and a huge time commitment. It is something only parents can truly do effectively. And the best homeschooling involves a community of parents working together, emphasizing each of their particular strengths, to teach the community of students, often aided by the incredible technology available to us today.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    See? “The best teaching is discipleship” and “only parents can truly do effectively” (@13). One size fits all! This approach is best for all children and parents!

    I actually think homeschooling is a good option for many people. I just get really tired of this attitude of superiority from homeschoolers.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    See? “The best teaching is discipleship” and “only parents can truly do effectively” (@13). One size fits all! This approach is best for all children and parents!

    I actually think homeschooling is a good option for many people. I just get really tired of this attitude of superiority from homeschoolers.

  • DonS

    tODD, my comment wasn’t meant to imply homeschooling as an exclusive teaching method. To the extent that it did, I apologize. All parents have a responsibility to “homeschool” and disciple their children, regardless of whether they supplement with a traditional school during school hours. That was my point. Parents must direct and be involved with the education of their children. And my comment was responsive to the notion that one can simply do away with human teaching, in favor, presumably, of plunking the student down in front of some form of advanced technology medium.

  • DonS

    tODD, my comment wasn’t meant to imply homeschooling as an exclusive teaching method. To the extent that it did, I apologize. All parents have a responsibility to “homeschool” and disciple their children, regardless of whether they supplement with a traditional school during school hours. That was my point. Parents must direct and be involved with the education of their children. And my comment was responsive to the notion that one can simply do away with human teaching, in favor, presumably, of plunking the student down in front of some form of advanced technology medium.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    Fair enough, Don (@15). Thanks for clearing that up. And I agree.

  • http://www.toddstadler.com/ tODD

    Fair enough, Don (@15). Thanks for clearing that up. And I agree.

  • http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/Contemporary-English-Version-CEV-Bible/ sg

    I love Khan Academy. My son uses it occasionally. I however, just love that man’s voice. Goofy, I know, but I could listen to him talk about anything!

  • http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/Contemporary-English-Version-CEV-Bible/ sg

    I love Khan Academy. My son uses it occasionally. I however, just love that man’s voice. Goofy, I know, but I could listen to him talk about anything!

  • http://capnsaltyslongvoyage.blogspot.com Dave

    I think I’m the one who initially used the term “discipleship” in this context in comment #2. It was probably an ill-advised word choice because it didn’t adequately encompass the idea I was trying to get across. Maybe “apprenticeship” is a better term. The idea is that someone who has some expertise in a discipline helps others develop that kind of expertise. This happens in all sorts of subject areas. For instance, a music student needs to spend time with master musicians, playing with them, listening to them, talking about strengths and weaknesses in performances. That’s the best way to develop musicality. Likewise, we learn to write well by working with good writers. We learn to think mathematically by working with people who think well mathematically and who allow us to enter into their world. That’s what I meant by “discipleship” as I was using it yesterday.

  • http://capnsaltyslongvoyage.blogspot.com Dave

    I think I’m the one who initially used the term “discipleship” in this context in comment #2. It was probably an ill-advised word choice because it didn’t adequately encompass the idea I was trying to get across. Maybe “apprenticeship” is a better term. The idea is that someone who has some expertise in a discipline helps others develop that kind of expertise. This happens in all sorts of subject areas. For instance, a music student needs to spend time with master musicians, playing with them, listening to them, talking about strengths and weaknesses in performances. That’s the best way to develop musicality. Likewise, we learn to write well by working with good writers. We learn to think mathematically by working with people who think well mathematically and who allow us to enter into their world. That’s what I meant by “discipleship” as I was using it yesterday.

  • Louis

    Ahh, Master and Apprentice. :)

    But I’m with Todd here, regarding his comments on HS’ers. Said as one who has been in that scene.

  • Louis

    Ahh, Master and Apprentice. :)

    But I’m with Todd here, regarding his comments on HS’ers. Said as one who has been in that scene.

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