We’ve talked about the second use of the Law (which convicts us of our sin and drives us to the Gospel) and the third use of the Law (its role in the Christian life). But we have perhaps neglected the first use of the Law, the civil use, which restrains external evil so as to make life in society possible. The civil use doesn’t save anyone, and it isn’t even religious as such, applying to all people whether they are believers or not. But the civil use would seem to govern the extent and limits of Christian political involvement.
We ARE to promote civil righteousness in the social order–opposing abortion, working for justice, fighting corruption, protecting families, etc., etc. That does NOT mean we are trying to impose our religion on anyone, much less trying to seize power to bring on a Christian utopia. It does NOT politicize the church. In the civil arena, we battle abortion in an effort to restrain our sinful impulse to kill our own children; in the church, though, we bring forgiveness to women and doctors who have committed abortion. Furthermore, believing in the first use of the Law does NOT mean just going along with whatever happens in the civil order, as some have mistakenly interpreted the doctrine of the Two Kingdoms. Those who believe in no morality at all are not following the first use. The first use of the Law would seem to govern issues such as gay marriage, legalized euthanasia, and other controversial issues in the public square.
This is my understanding of the first use of the Law. Do I have it right? Am I missing anything? How else could this doctrine be applied?