Max Weber, one of the founders of modern sociology, credited the doctrine of vocation for the rise of the modern economy in his 1920 book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Now, there are problems with Weber’s thesis and his approach, as scholars have been noting. Theologically, he emphasizes Calvin’s doctrine of vocation, which stresses your job, rather than Luther’s, which includes how you make your living but also covers marriage, parenthood, and citizenship. Weber also says that success at your work was seen as a way to convince yourself of your election (which I’m not sure Calvinists actually believed), while Luther sees the purpose of all vocations as love and service to one’s neighbor. Luther sees vocation in light of the Gospel, so that such love is a fruit of faith. Vocation isn’t about the value of your own works, since God is working through you in your calling.
Anyway, Weber popularized the notion of the “Protestant work ethic.” [Read more…]