LINDSEY ASKS: All Protestants practice baptism by immersion — true or false?
THE GUY ANSWERS: False. Protestants are divided over many tenets and that includes baptism.
Churches that rarely or never fully immerse candidates’ bodies in water include the Lutheran, Methodist, Anglican (or Episcopal), Presbyterian, Reformed, etc.
On the opposite side, immersion is mandatory with Baptists and many others. Also, churches in the second category believe candidates must be able to profess personal faith, ruling out infant baptism which they say was not Christianity’s original practice, and often hold an infant “dedication” ceremony instead. There’s also disagreement on the theology of baptism and whether it’s a “sacrament.”
U.S. Catholic, Presbyterian and Reformed delegates recently affirmed two baptism rules dating from Christianity’s earliest doctrinal manual, the Didache (A.D. 120 or before): To be valid, baptism is performed “with flowing water” as the names of the three persons in the Trinity are pronounced. Note that the water is poured rather than “sprinkled” as these churches used to say.
The invocation of the divine Trinity is taken verbatim from Jesus’ “great commission” in the New Testament: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 28:19).
Surprisingly, the Catholic Church is so favorable toward immersion it sounds almost Baptist, even though it rarely practices that mode. The Orthodox Church requires immersion for infants, who account for most of its baptisms.
In Catholicism, the Catechism calls immersion “the original and full sign of” baptism and says the rite is “performed in the most expressive way by triple immersion in the baptismal water.” However, the text adds that “from ancient times” baptism has also been “conferred by pouring the water three times over the candidate’s head.” So Catholicism allows either immersion or pouring, depending on personal preference, tradition and circumstances.
A statement from the U.S. Catholic bishops says the Greek word for baptism means “immersion” or “bath” so that “immersion in water is a sign of death, and emersion out of the water means new life. To bathe is also to undergo cleansing.” The bishops further note that Jesus himself underwent immersion by John the Baptist.