female pastors and porn

female pastors and porn cartoon by nakedpastor david hayward

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I read an interesting story about a magazine’s report of women in ministry. The January/ February issue of Gospel Today was a contentious one.

Its lead story is “Female Pastors”. The five female pastors who are featured on the cover are Pastor Sheryl Brady of The River in Durham, N.C.; Pastor Tamara Bennett of This Is Pentecost Ministries in Sacramento, Calif.; Bishop Millicent Hunter of The Baptist Worship Center in Philadelphia, Pa.; Pastor Claudette Copeland of New Creation Christian Fellowship in San Antonio, Texas; and Pastor Kimberly Ray of Church on the Rock in Matteson, Ill.

This issue was pulled off of the racks of many Christian bookstores, including over 100 supplied by Lifeway Resources. The Southern Baptist insists that being a pastor is a role reserved for men. The magazine’s publisher, Teresa Hairston, said she was not promoting women pastors but simply reporting a trend. She said:

“The basically treated it like pornography and put it behind the counter. Unless a person goes into the store and asks for it, they won’t see it displayed.”

The parallels between pornography and women in ministry in the minds of some would be fascinating to study, wouldn’t it?: the objectification of women; the inappropriateness of women in certain positions; the mystique and allure of women exposing themselves publicly; women in dominant positions; making the sexuality of a woman the prominent feature; women serving men; how men elevate women on one level and then judge them for it on another; and so on.

I like what one of the pastors, Bennet, said:

“It’s a story that needs to be told. Sometimes we forget that ministry is God’s business. It’s not a man’s business. God gives gifts to whomever he sees fit.”

Many wouldn’t agree, however. Chris Turner of Lifeway Resources, said that it wasn’t so much that women were on the cover, but it was that the article contained statements contrary to what they would say.

I checked the issue online and it is sold out. You can’t buy it anywhere. Is this a sign that gender equality is not just a trend but a growing reality? I believe so.

About David Hayward

David Hayward runs the blog nakedpastor as a graffiti artist on the walls of religion where he critiques religion… specifically Christianity and the church. He also runs the online community The Lasting Supper where people can help themselves discover, explore and live in spiritual freedom.

  • Adam Julians

    Hey – must mean that the female pastors that you mention are hard core then. That was a compliment.

    Hard core in terms of bucking the trend of a pastor being male.

    If you had a laugh at me calling them hard core then cool. If not then you have a dirty mind – go sort it out. :) LOL.

  • David Williams

    On a deep level, this works, because porneia is about the objectification of a person. Those who look at women in the pulpit and do not see a sister lit up with the Spirit of God, but can only see their own projection…well…they’re thinking pornographically, in the most fundamental sense of the word.

  • Caryn LeMur

    The bookstores pulled the copies off the shelves???? What did they fear so greatly? My mind is boggled at their lack of courage.
    Wait… oh my… I forgot….didn’t Jesus avoid controversy and only taught the Law of Moses?…. And that new command in John 13 and 14… you know, “A new command I give unto you: Wives, love your husbands as I loved you, and submit to them.”

    In my memory, I remember Jesus saying to the Woman at the Well, ‘Where is your husband?’ yep… that’s all I remember He said … all that stuff about the old method being no more and the Father even seeking those that desired a deeper reality…. let’s just sweep that stuff away… Jesus never said that… Jesus lived just to fulfill the Law of Moses and get all the women back in line.

    yep… that’s it. Avoidance and No change. Sounds so very Christ-like…..

    Right……..

    Much love in Christ always and unconditionally; Caryn

  • http://forthisisthetime.com/ Esther Aspling

    I personally like this new trend. We have a woman on our speaking team, and she gets the most listen’s on the website audio tracks (did that even make sense?).

    The best part? We’re in Minnesota. Piper territory. lol

    http://forthisisthetime.com/

  • http://www.facebook.com/robin.slater.75 Robin Slater

    Mind boggling. The bible says woman was to be man’s helper…not a servant. Pffttt.

  • Rebecca Ver Straten-McSparran

    New trend? As a female pastor for 14 years I’ve been discouraged by the growing trend of 20-30′s who are going in huge numbers to churches that do not allow female pastors. For example, I don’t think any of the churches cited in Brett McCracken’s “Hipster Christianity,” allow female pastors. The popular churches in NYC (Tim Keller), Washington, DC and L.A. are of this ilk. In L.A. my alums from L.A. Film Studies Center (from CCCU Christian colleges where I’m director) entering the entertainment industry go mostly to Mosaic (Southern Baptist), Reality LA (everyone is beautiful(!) and between 20-30–big church), or Crossroads (PCA), and Ecclesia (they’ve struggled with the issue and allow some of staff but not senior pastor to be women, I believe). It’s disheartening after the hard groundwork laid in the last 30 years. Most of these churches are very subtle and don’t express their true views until you get deeper into the subculture. Hmmmm…. I’d love to be wrong.

  • Rebecca Ver Straten-McSparran

    New trend? As a female pastor for 14 years I’ve been discouraged by the growing trend of 20-30′s who are going in huge numbers to churches that do not allow female pastors. For example, I don’t think any of the churches cited in Brett McCracken’s “Hipster Christianity,” allow female pastors. The popular churches in NYC (Tim Keller), Washington, DC and L.A. are of this ilk. In L.A. my alums from L.A. Film Studies Center (from CCCU Christian colleges where I’m director) entering the entertainment industry go mostly to Mosaic (Southern Baptist), Reality LA (everyone is beautiful(!) and between 20-30–big church), or Crossroads (PCA), and Ecclesia (they’ve struggled with the issue and allow some of staff but not senior pastor to be women, I believe). It’s disheartening after the hard groundwork laid in the last 30 years. Most of these churches are very subtle and don’t express their true views until you get deeper into the subculture. Hmmmm…. I’d love to be wrong.

  • Rebecca Ver Straten-McSparran

    I actually love the ministries of the churches I mentioned above but am concerned about this part and the way they represent God’s call on one’s life. For many of us it had nothing to do with being female and was more about obedience than anything else. If you love God, why would you disobey a clear call? It’s not easy to argue with a ministry profoundly blessed.

  • http://twitter.com/DrJonFDewey Dr. Jon F. Dewey

    My problem with magazine covers isn’t that they have women or have pastors. I don’t like how “successful” clergy is portrayed, period. Successful men wear $5000 suits (ala Benny Hinn, Joel Olsteen) and successful women look like Barbies (ala Paula White). Fake, fake fake. And yes, please note that I have mentioned “prosperity” preachers predominately. That is because that is the image that the American church media has latched onto as a symbol of ministry “success.”

  • Al Cruise

    In my 40 years in lay ministries, all the disgrace brought to Christianity by pastors in my area [and probably in western culture] have done by male pastors. We always find a way to excuse it though, don’t we.

  • Adam Julians

    You made a very important point Jon and, dare I say, prophetic about eh barbies and expensive suits?

    I would say that there is nothign wrong with looking good as culture defines that if that comes naturally. I woudn’t want any attractive women or men who wear smart suits to feel bad about that.

    But I think you have put your finger on seomthing. The prospertiy gospel – sounds more like the American dream than the gospel of Jesus Christ does it not? If you have time, I’d welcome your thgouths on this article and video. http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/tvandradioblog/2011/apr/19/derren-brown-faith-healers

  • Amy@SoulDipper

    Please help us to grow up spiritually.

  • Amy@SoulDipper

    P.S. – David, thank you for being real.

  • http://nakedpastor.com/ nakedpastor

    :)

  • Pingback: female pastors and porn – Patheos – Patheos (blog) | Media Ministry

  • KMcDonald

    Could it be that the reason the issue is sold out is because it’s old? The cover in the link has an article about favorite youth pastors in 2008. Don’t miss read this note, the issue of female pastors is not out of date – I have several female pastor friends who struggle for acceptance in the church at large. Maybe just THIS story about THIS issue of THIS magazine is old.

  • http://heckledtrio.blogspot.com Helly

    Wow, I had no idea that Reality embraced that concept. I recently started exploring Reality Santa Barbara, and took a closer look at their “Ecclesiology” page after reading your comment. Sure enough– there it was– their position on “male eldership”. Which is a shame, because I find most of their teachings pretty awesome, otherwise!

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Mike-Rogers/100000502661790 Mike Rogers

    You might be interested to know that New York Yankee pitcher Mariano Rivera’s wife pastors a church in NYC. They are both Latinos (Panamanians). Not sure if that has anything to do with her ministry.

  • http://twitter.com/DrJonFDewey Dr. Jon F. Dewey

    I’ve written on that before. I am not a fan of faith healers and/or manufactured signs and wonders. Unfortunately, I could not view the clip, because of restrictions. Something equally interesting from the 80s was a NOVA show with James Randi where he debunked psychics.

    http://cumberlandemergent.blogspot.com/2013/04/should-americans-seek-signs-and-wonders.html

  • Adam Julians

    Yeah well it prettu much was along the lines of showing the wealthy and privelidge such figures have, protected by a team of security anf local police.

    The article was interesting. Good point about responsibility for followers to be centred on Jesus and the bible rather than signs and wonders. Jesus himself said this unbelieving generation wanted signs and wonders. Everyone likes a show!

  • Adam Julians

    I’m trying to understand what you want to communicate about what you are finding disheartning Rebecca. I’m not quite sure if I had understood you in the way you have intended to communicate.

    Are wanting to say that folks in their 20′s-30′s are going in huge numbers to churches not led by female pastors becaues they are being subtly deceived in being drawn in and disguising views that are misreperesentative of God’s call on one’s life that are only discovered once you get deeper into the subcultre of the church? If that is what you are intending to say, are you suggesting that similar woudn’t be happening in churches led by female pastors?

    I currently am attending the Church of Scotland denomination. I hear from my minister (pastor) that the number of ordained ministers than are men and that are women in C of S is about 50/50. Perhaps this is something that other churches could follow suit with. One issue that also came up was the disproportionate number of women attending church compared to men. And questions being asked about how to attract men to church.

    I’d be grateful for your response to these questions if you have time and are willing.

  • Adam Julians

    I hear your concern about women to be “back in line” and being told to “love your husbands as I have loved you, and submit to them”. I hope I would be right in assuming that you would in context see the wife’s submission to the husbands in the light of mutua submission. And the husband’s side of that to love the wife as Christ loves the church. Well what did Christ do – he died for the church – right? So – then if husbands are not willing to die for their wives, if wives are not willing to submist to husbands, then both gendes need to get “back in line” surely.
    So then, in the light of cultural pressure to be otherwise, it takes courage on the part of both men and women to live accordingly. Do you agree?
    What I understand form the woman at the well is here is a woman who Jesus met with as an equal in human terms, the conversation reveling who he was and about herself startign off with a talk about water and ending with him being the messiah that she had foreknowldege about. That there was a connection btweeen both of them as a result of the conversdation. And that he comissioned her as an evangelist to tell others about.
    I hear your frustration with avoiding issues and lack of change. I have frustrations about the church avoiding issues and lack of change too. This is on of the tensions of living in the here but not yet kingdom.
    the best any one of us can do is kno our part in the kingdom and to play that to the best we can, trusting that God is bringin about justice in his timing. And what a privelidge it is to be part of that plan – right?

  • Caryn LeMur

    Adam J:
    As a former man, who now lives as a woman, I really do perceive both sides of the coin, so to speak. I am a transsexual (or someone with Gender Identity Disorder (GID), if you prefer). I am also a follower of Jesus.
    However, my deep observation as a man among men – and now as a woman among many women – has concluded that submission should ultimately be mutual, but the man must play the card of sacrifice first, and many times.
    The man I was gave up entire career-pursuits that my wife was against. I am not a helicopter pilot, a military commander, nor a fulltime minister … because Bonnie strongly objected to those career pursuits. Years invested and lost; dreams and hopes invested and given up for her.
    Recently, I have given up my part-time ministry, extensive gardens, and lovely home to ensure that Bonnie and I live in her dream house on the waters of Maryland. [By the way, Bonnie's dream house is lovely... this is not a hardship tour, by any means.]
    But… this is our retirement home, and moving here involved deep sacrifice for me spiritually, emotionally, and stressed our finances quite well. [God is faithful, and I am recovering from the normal grieving process... but this email is emphasizing the sacrifice, k?]
    In my opinion, the man or woman in the role of ‘husband’ must be willing to give up careers, locations, and even career-pursuits for the sake of the spouse. [We say, 'Which came first, the chicken or the egg?' - as a rhetorical statement here, in the States. In this case, I offer that the chicken of sacrifice comes first; the egg of submission comes later.]
    Once the person in the husband-role has sacrificed much (several times, in my case), the person in the wife-role can relax, feel safe and secure – the wife-role knows that she has the incredible veto-power of the President (even though she is not president). She can veto any leadership decision, even though she is not the leader. Deep conversation about his and her hopes, dreams, goals, and life’s direction ‘for us’ become the norm.
    I offer in such a deep place of security, the person in the wife-role can find the freedom and peace to submit. She is safe beside the peaceful stream and feeds within the green pastures. She realizes that the husband-role is like Christ. She then sees that her cup overflows with blessings, and that the husband-role sets a feast before her (even if her enemies are watching). He will not lead her into any place wherein she becomes a victim – his authority protects her, and his staff teaches her gently, in love, and with kindness at all times. Submission is like a seed within her… it bursts into life, not death… submission is freedom to speak, to be deeply heard, to veto when necessary… submission is then internal, of the heart, and perhaps, maybe, one day, the wife-role’s submission will be also shown externally.
    I have therefore observed men and women… and lived among both groups as one of the ‘in group’… hearing the ‘secrets’ and laments of both sides. I am therefore a harmless ‘spy’, if you will, and lived/live in both subcultures – male and female (United States, civilian and military).
    I have observed that without the person in the husband-role sacrificing for the spouse’s sake (many times over), the transforming nature of the partner’s submission will simply be external and conforming, rather than internal and transforming. The [external conforming] wife-role will then become the angry wife, the complaining wife, the passive aggressive wife, and/or the perfect pastor’s wife that is taking anti-depressants to survive.
    By the way, the foundation was laid for us by Christ ‘while we were yet sinners’ – and therefore, I conclude that the husband-role must lay the foundation of visible and tangible sacrifice for many years before the wife-role can respond.
    Again, mutual submission is the ultimate goal — but the husband-role must play his/her cards first. Hope this long note helps to clarify my current understanding.
    Much love in Christ always and unconditionally; Caryn

  • m. castleberry

    I am not Rebecca, yet I find the same thing disheartening that she does.

    I don’t think that she finds the fact that people in their 20′s and 30′s are going to churches led by male pastors disturbing: It’s that they’re attending churches where a female pastor would not even be an *option*.

    As someone who self-identifies as a feminist and attended a PCA (Presbyterian Church in America) church for a while…I occasionally look at other options for church, and I find it frustrating that churches who hold their gender hierarchy beliefs dear do NOT list that information on their websites in the sections that talk about their beliefs.

    I have no problem attending a church with a male pastor. But then I have to look through the leadership of the church to try to guess its views on women. Are there women in leadership? If so, what are they doing? Are any of them elders (if there are elders in that structure)? Are there women in leadership but they are called something different than men in leadership are? Are the ministers who are female ministering only to women and to children? Or maybe a minister of music?

    These groups are not forthright about the centrality of gender hierarchy in their belief system. I think part of that is because they don’t fully recognize the litmus test that it has become for them.

    The PCA and other churches often offer a more “contemporary” worship option, with contemporary praise music, a more modern feel, and maybe even a pastor who preaches in jeans. The churches that don’t discriminate against women, at least in my area, tend to be more staid in feel (although I actually like that). The more contemporary, almost laid-back feel, can easily draw people in who would not have attended that church if they knew that it is sexist. But as you recognize, Adam, some things are often not apparent until one is more involved in a church.

  • m. castleberry

    I am curious as to what defines the husband-role.

    In my view, certainly, when one person involved in a couple is male (particularly cis-gendered, heterosexual, white, etc.), it makes sense to me that he would need to give up the privilege that comes from having that body in US society. I hesitate to identify the husband-role as being whomever makes more money, though, both for personal reasons (as I make so little that it would be laughable if it were funny) and because I am idealistic enough to be offended by the thought that our relationships rely so much on money for definition.

  • m. castleberry

    Yes, Helly–that’s another thing I’ve found. These churches are often (again, where I live, YMMV) to appeal to people who have not found church very appealing, and so their ideas can sound exciting (to me, at least).

    It’s weird, because they go to these lengths to sound open, inviting, and welcoming. And then there’s this…”BUT, if you are a woman….” list of things that don’t apply to you. Like the fullness of the Gospel, apparently. After a while I could not listen to a sermon in a PCA church without wondering which parts did and didn’t apply to me, since I’m female.

  • http://www.facebook.com/brandon.heat.77 Brandon Heat

    WOMEN ARE NOT PERMITTED TO TEACH THE WORD OF GOD! 1 TIMOTHY 2:12

  • http://nakedpastor.com/ nakedpastor

    hehe brandon that’s funny

  • Adam Julians

    Hi thanks for sharing. What I am hearing is a concenr for folks attending churches where female pastors are not an option and that you would want to see churches with equal opportunitied in leadership.

    You are right of course about things not being apparent until one gets more involved in the church.

    What would your views be about sexism say, if a female pastor or leader or any leader makle or female treated a man as if he had been opressive towards a woman with no evidence for that having happened? And what would be your recommendation for him if he had been on the receiving end of opression and was being wrongly accused?

    By the way i apologise on behalf of my gender for the idiot who posted that abusive ans sexist comment above – I’m surpised it hasn’t been edited out.

  • Adam Julians

    Hi Caryn,

    And thank you for that very thourough comment. What I am hearing from you is a passion to want to see the wives submit to husbands done on the light of initially husbands sacrificing for wives and then the wife being comfortable to submit in a spirit of mutual submission having an atmosphere of security and safety that has been created by the husband.

    And that your concern if of this not happening leading to a external submission rather than a transforming internal one leading to the angry, passive agressive, complaining or “poerfect” pastor’s wife taking anti-depressants to survive.

    And that in response to what I have said about knowing our part in the kingdom, trusting God for justice and the privelidge it is to be part of that, you see different roles for the husband and wife in the relationship, in that it requireds a huband to “woo” to use an old fashioned word, his wife by being sacrificual and that engendering in her the submission in a spirit of mutual submission. If that is what you were intending to communicate, then I agree. There is beuty in that and I belive a reflection of the likeness of Christ in that. Isn’t that what Christ does wiht the chuch, that the church loves because Christ loved first?

    Yeah you not was helpful. I guess what i am keen on then is overcoming the obstcles that get in the way of things being like that and cutting out anythign that hinders it being that way.

    We have talked so far about the onus on the man or husband and where there are or have been failures to live up to responsibility in this. From your experience, do you ever see or have you ever experienced the onus on the wife or women not being met? Or do you think this is an issue soley to be addressed to men in society, and that there currently is no fault in the women’s conduct in this?

  • Adam Julians

    When the apostle Paul wrote this, it was in a culture of pagan worship where the church at Ephesus was situated. On one case the worship of a goddess who was deemed “superior over all beings”. It was also in the textual context in the rest of the book of 1st Timothy in which Pauls concern is about false teaching.

    So what were the issues wiht the women that were teachign and having authority over men in the church there? It could be that pagan influences had compromised the gospel they were preaching. It could be that they had been listning to false male teachers and teaching similarlty. It could be that they were powerful local businesswomen who were attmpting to exert such power in the church inapporpriately. It could be that they had been acting in such a way that would have been disruptive to the church, causing a riot.

    Paul would have been acutely aware of the dominance of the Roman authorities that would have crushed the church at any perceived threat to peace that would have occured as a result of a riot.

    it could have been all of these things, it could have been non of them. But to lift one verse out of the textual and cultural context in which it was written, and apply it literally is not a persuasive approach to biblical interpretation. The fact that many people have intelligently reflected on this verse and different conclusions come to about its meaning demands that where there are differences in understanding that come from its reading, that they be treated with the utomost intellectual respect.

  • Adam Julians

    Oh I see it has been edited now and laughed at – quite right. :)

  • m. castleberry

    Hmm… a person who was wrongly accused of sexism. Or of anything, really. It’s too broad for me to address. I’m sure gender hierarchists would claim they aren’t sexist and feel wrongly accused.

    But I sense that is not the case, here. ;-)

    I don’t know. I would try to find documentation and other people who would prove my argument. That sounds very frustrating, at the least.

  • Adam Julians

    Perhps it would help if I gave a personal testimony. I know having shared this with other men, I am not alone in this and the kind of issue I am talking about it every bit as in need of attention as other forms of sexism that we have been discussing if equality is the aim.

    I am dyslexic. i have only receently been diagnosed dyslexic. When I grew up and for a significant part of my adult hood I was regarded as being lazy, careless,stupid even. Ironically the test I tooked that showed I have dysexia by an educational psychologist also showed I have a rich vocabulary and am in the top 1% of the population for verbal reasoning and problem solving ability. Supervisors I have had in workplaces have regarded me as hard – working and good with people.

    My mother was the more dominant of the two out of her and my father and she bought into the idea that I was lazy, careless etc growing up. Looking back on it I belive she did so wiht the best of intentions, but in ignorance and in a way that was harmful for me.

    The reason I left my last church started with a conversation this with a female leader (and it is important I think that I mention she was female in the light of this conversation). I shared with her that my mother had caused me difficulty as described. the way it was treated by her was with the presumption that I had been the one doing the mistreatement rather than the one who had been mistreated. When I objected, this then lead to difficulty with the male pastor, events escallated fomr there which resulted fomr me leaving.

    I am in a process of healing from this at the moment. If I might add one other instance. I have a family member who suffered fomr domestic abuse fomr his wife. It resulted in him expereincing depression fomr verbal abuse and there was physical abuse by her too. He is now divoced and happily in a relationship.

    Can I suggest considering this article specifically on the issue of domestic abuse, but applied more widely how abuse is considered when the injured party is male.

    “One in three victims of domestic abuse in Britain is male but refuge beds for men are critically scarce. There are 78 spaces which can be used by men …This compares with around 4,000 spaces for women. In Northern Ireland and Scotland there are no male refuges at all”. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/domestic-violence-as-a-man-its-very-difficult-to-say-ive-been-beaten-up-8572143.html

    I know my and my family member;s expereinces sadly are not unique. And that there are men I have com across on a number of occasions who have had expereinces not unlike this. There is a culture of shame attached to adressing this issue which I would argue stgonly is every bit as serious as equally importans issues faced by women with prejudice and / or abuse.

    Thank you for your willingness to consider this issue. I look forward to any helpful comment you woudl like to give in response.

  • Rebecca Ver Straten-McSparran

    I’m sure most people know this, but in case it helps someone: Denominations that always accept female pastors include PC(USA), that is Presbyterian Church, USA, most African American denominations (note that all pastors mentioned in the original article were African Americans), United Methodist, Foursquare, at least some Vineyards if not all, Congregational, Disciples of Christ, Lutheran and Episcopalian churches. This is a very general list but might be informative. The only 20-30 age growing church like those mentioned earlier with both male and female pastor that I know of is Oasis in L.A. Generally, non-denominational churches rarely accept female pastors.

  • Rebecca Ver Straten-McSparran

    Adam,

    Sorry for the delayed response. I was transitioning from US to UK. It sounds like you got what I meant from M.

    Regarding numbers of men vs. women in churches–I’ve heard that more women than men attend churches but it is not my current experience. In the churches I mentioned, with a younger congregation and artists the numbers are about equal. In the church I currently attend (male pastor but very open to female pastors) the numbers are about equal. In the church I planted previously we had mostly males. Oddly enough, in the beginning we had a hard time getting women to come although the guys were intelligent (grad students and artists/musicians/filmmakers) and good-looking!

  • Adam Julians

    Oh good to hear those have been your expereinces! Welcome to the UK!

  • LorenHaas

    Add American Baptist to the list. Our teaching pastor is male, but other female pastors also teach the congregation and the board is mixed male/female.
    I used to attend a local Calvary Chapel church. Ugh! Very male dominated and as noted, they ban on female leadership is not up front. We were entrenched in some good ministries before this became too much to bear and we left.

  • http://www.tammygrrrl.com/ Tammy Perlmutter

    The Evangelical Covenant Church also encourages female pastors, as well as numerous female church members to bring the Word. We have two in our church. http://www.covchurch.org/

  • http://www.tammygrrrl.com/ Tammy Perlmutter

    I grew up in an AB church with a female pastor and was surprised to learn in my twenties that there was something “wrong” with that!!

  • xnlover

    Adam, David Murrow wrote “Why Men Hate Going to Church,” which is now out in a revised and updated version. Check it out.

  • Genesis McKenzie

    Get rid of all human discriminating religions, or let them evolve; but since their evolution is not possible, let them die like the other ancient myths. Don’t feed those types of Churches.


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