Words and Imagery of Isaiah’s “Suffering Servant” in the New Testament Attributed to Jesus
(By “attributed to Jesus” I only mean the imagery is attached to Jesus by the NT authors, clearly indicating that they thought of Jesus as the final fulfillment of the Suffering Servant of Isaiah.)
*Sidebar: The opinions expressed here are my own (or those of the guest writer); I do not speak for any other person, group or organization; nor do I imply that the opinions expressed here reflect those of any other person, group or organization unless I say so specifically. Before commenting read the entire post and the “Note to commenters” at its end.*
(I did not create this document; I found it in my files. If someone who created it would like me to give them credit for it I will be happy to do that by adding a credit line to this.)
Some of these allusions (to words and phrases and images in Isaiah) are very clear. Others use parallel concepts that probably have their root in Isaiah (especially chapter 53.) Where appropriate, I have boldfaced the words that are central to the allusion or parallel. Verses are listed in the order they appear in the New Testament. The left column shows the corresponding verse in Isaiah. The question is: Can Christians who take the entire New Testament seriously drop entirely substitutionary atonement in favor of other theories of how Christ’s death saves (to the exclusion of substitutionary sacrifice)?
|42:1||And a voice came from heaven: “You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased.” Mark 1:11 = Matthew 3:17|
|53:4||“This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah: ‘He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases.‘” (Matthew 8:17; quotes Is 53:4)|
|42:1-4||“Here is my servant whom I have chosen,|
the one I love, in whom I delight;
I will put my Spirit on him,
and he will proclaim justice to the nations.
He will not quarrel or cry out;
no one will hear his voice in the streets.
A bruised reed he will not break,
and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out,
till he leads justice to victory.
In his name the nations will put their hope.” (Matthew 12:18-21; quotes Is 42:1-4)
|52:12-53:12||“just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” (Matthew 20:28=Mark 10:45; conceptual parallel. See “for many” language in Is 53:11-12)|
|53:11-12||“This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.” (Matthew 26:28 = Mark 14:24)|
|53:3||“Jesus replied, ‘To be sure, Elijah does come first, and restores all things. Why then is it written that the Son of Man must suffer much and be rejected?'”(Mark 9:12)|
|53:12||“It is written: ‘And he was numbered with the transgressors‘; and I tell you that this must be fulfilled in me. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment.” (Luke 22:37; Jesus quotes Is 53:12)|
|“He said to them, ‘How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?’ And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself.” (Luke 24:25-27)|
|53:6-7, 12||“The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!'” (John 1:29)|
“When he saw Jesus passing by, he said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God!’ ” (John 1:36)
|52:13||“The crowd spoke up, ‘We have heard from the Law that the Christ will remain forever, so how can you say, “The Son of Man must be lifted up“? Who is this “Son of Man”?'” (John 12:34)|
|53:1||“This was to fulfill the word of Isaiah the prophet: ‘Lord, who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?‘” (John 12:38, quotes Is 53:1)|
|53:7-8||“The eunuch was reading this passage of Scripture:|
‘He was led like a sheep to the slaughter
and as a lamb before the shearer is silent,
so he did not open his mouth.
In his humiliation he was deprived of justice.
Who can speak of his descendants?
For his life was taken from the earth.‘
The eunuch asked Philip, ‘Tell me, please, who is the prophet talking about, himself or someone else?’ Then Philip began with that very passage of Scripture and told him the good news about Jesus.” (Acts 8:32-35; quotes Is 53:7-8)
|53:11-12||“Again, the gift of God is not like the result of the one man’s sin: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation, but the gift followed many trespasses and brought justification.” (Romans 5:16)|
“For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.” (Romans 5:19)
|53:1||“But not all the Israelites accepted the good news. For Isaiah says, ‘Lord, who has believed our message?‘” (Romans 10:16, quotes Is 53:1)|
|52:15||“Rather, as it is written:|
‘Those who were not told about him will see,
and those who have not heard will understand.‘” (Romans 15:21, quotes Is 52:15)
|53.1-12||“For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve.” (1 Cor. 15:3-5)|
|53:11||“God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.” (2 Cor. 5:21, conceptual parallel)|
|53:6, 12||“Who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father.” (Galatians 1:4)|
“I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.” (Galatians 2:20)
“…and live a life of love, just as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us as a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God.” (Ephesians 5:2)
“Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her.” (Ephesians 5:25)
|53:10||“For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all men — the testimony given in its proper time.” (1 Tim. 2:5-6)|
|53:10||“Who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good.” (Titus 2:14)|
|53:4, 6, 11, 12||“so Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.” (Hebrews 9:28)|
|52:13-53:12||“…Trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointing when he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow.” (1 Peter 1:11)|
|53:11, 9,7, 5, 6||“To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps. “He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth.” (quotes Is 53:9)|
When they hurled their insults at him, he did not retaliate; when he suffered, he made no threats. Instead, he entrusted himself to him who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, so that we might die to sins and live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed. (quotes Is 53:5) For you were like sheep going astray, but now you have returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls.” (1 Peter 2:24-25)
|53:11||“For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit…” (1 Peter 3:18)|
|53:11||“He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.” (1 John 2:2)|
|5:4, 6, 11, 12||“But you know that he appeared so that he might take away our sins. And in him is no sin.” (1 John 3:5)|
|53:10||“This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins.” (1 John 4:10)|
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