Bibliography on Arguments for Atheism

The purpose of this bibliography is to provide a comprehensive listing of academic resurces which contain presentations, formulations, or defenses of various arguments for atheism. The bibliography currently omits any references to resources which criticize those arguments; I hope to fix that in the future as time allows.

As always, I don’t claim this bibliography is perfectly accurate or complete; if spot any errors or omissions, please post your feedback as a “comment” at the bottom of this page. I will update the bibliography as time allows.

1. “Methodological” Points

1.1. Arguments for Atheism Do Not Require Omniscience

Carrier, Richard. “Proving a Negative.” The Secular Web (1999), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/theory.html.

Hales, Steven. “You Can Prove a Negative.” Think 10 (2005): 109-12. http://departments.bloomu.edu/philosophy/pages/content/hales/articles/proveanegative.html

Lowder, Jeffery Jay. “Is a Proof of the Non-Existence of God Even Possible?” The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/jeff_lowder/ipnegep.html.

Vuletic, Mark. “Is Atheism Logical.” The Secular Web (1996), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/nontheism/atheism/negative.html.

1.2. Theists Have the Burden of Proof

1.2.1. Lack of Belief Requires No Justification Unless There is Reason to Have a Belief

Flew, Antony. “The Presumption of Atheism.” In God, Freedom, and Immortality (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1984), 13-30.

Hanson, Norwood Russell. “What I Don’t Believe.” In What I Do Not Believe and Other Essays (ed. Stephen Toulmin and Harry W. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1971), 309-31. Available on Google Books here.

Parsons, Keith M. God and the Burden of Proof. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1989.

—. “Do Atheists Bear a Burden of Proof? A Reply to Ralph McInerny.” The Secular Web (1997), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/keith_parsons/mcinerny.html.

Scriven, Michael. Primary Philosophy (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966).

1.2.2. The Argument from Logical Probability: Atheism as the Default Position

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 87-93.

1.3. Various Explanatory Principles

1.3.1. Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Evidence

1.3.2. The Extremely Low Prior Probability of Theism

Draper, Paul. “God and Evil: A Philosophical Inquiry.” http://philreligion.nd.edu/assets/44795/1011lecture.pdf (accessed November 7, 2011).

—. “Why Theists Bear a Heavy Burden of Proof,” unpublished paper.

1.3.3. Ockham’s Razor

Doug Jesseph, “Opening Statement.” In The Jesseph-Craig Debate: Does God Exist? (1996) published in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/doug_jesseph/jesseph-craig/jesseph1.html.

1.3.4. Argument from Asymmetry

Doug Jesseph, “Opening Statement.” Speech delivered in the Craig-Jesseph Debate: Does God Exist? (1997) at Arizona State University.

1.3.5. The “In Principle” Objection to Theistic Explanations: Theism Cannot Explain Anything

1.3.6. The “De Facto” Objection to Theistic Explanations: Theism Is Not a Successful Explanation

Dawes, Gregory. Theism and Explanation. Routledge, 2009.

Related Partner Blog Posts: here,

2. Arguments for the Non-existence of God

2.1. “Logical” Arguments for the Non-Existence of God

2.1.1. Definition Disproofs

Definition: arguments which attempt to show an inconsistency in the definition of God

2.1.1.1. Incoherence of Necessary Existence

Findlay, J.N. “Can God’s Existence be Disproved?” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2003), 19-26. Originally published in Mind 54 (1948): 176-83.

—. “God’s Non-Existence: A Reply to Mr. Rainer and Mr. Hughes.” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2003), 27-30. Originally published in Mind 58 (1949): 352-54.

2.1.1.2. Incoherence of God’s Being All Virtuous

Walton, Douglas. “Can an Ancient Argument of Carneades on Cardinal Virtues and Divine Attributes Be Used to Disprove the Existence of God?” Philo 2 (1999): 5-13.

2.1.2. Deductive Disproofs of the Existence of God

Definition: arguments which attempt to show that the existence of God (who has certain attributes) is logically incompatible with a known fact

2.1.2.1 Evil

Hanna, Nathan. “Resurrecting the Logical Problem of Evil,” unpublished. http://commonsenseatheism.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Hanna-Resurrecting-the-Logical-Problem-of-Evil-draft.pdf

Mackie, J.L.. “Evil and Omnipotence.” Mind 64 (1955): 200-212.

Smith, Quentin. “A Sound Logical Argument from Evil.” In Ethical and Religious Thought in Analytic Philosophy of Language (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 148-56. Republished in Michael Martin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Atheism.

Sobel, Jordan Howard. Logic and Theism: Arguments For and Against Beliefs in God (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 436-498.

2.1.2.2. Moral Anti-Realism

Oppy, Graham. “Is God Good By Definition?” Religious Studies 28 (1992): 464-74.

2.1.2.3. Normative Ethics

2.1.2.3.1. The Moral Obligation to Prevent Undeserved, Involuntary Human Suffering

Maitzen, Stephen. “Does God Destroy Our Duty of Compassion?” Free Inquiry 30 (2010): 52-53. http://philosophy.acadiau.ca/tl_files/sites/philosophy/resources/documents/Maitzen_DGDDC.pdf

—. “Ordinary Morality Implies Atheism.” European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (2009): 107-26. http://philosophy.acadiau.ca/tl_files/sites/philosophy/resources/documents/Maitzen_OMIA.pdf

2.1.3. Doctrinal Disproofs of the Existence of God

Definition: arguments which attempt to show that the existence of God is logically incompatible with a particular religious doctrine, story, or teaching about God

2.1.3.1. The Paradox of Eden

La Croix, Richard. “The Paradox of Eden.” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2003), 127-128. Originally published in International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 15 (1984): 171.

2.1.3.2. Miracles vs. The Nature of God

Overall, Christine. “Miracles as Evidence Against the Existence of God.”  In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2003), 147-153. Originally published in The Southern Journal of Philosophy 23 (1985): 347-53.

—. “Miracles and God: A Reply to Robert A.H. Larmer.” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2003), 154-166. Originally published in Dialogue 36 (1997): 741-52.

2.1.4. Multiple Attributes Disproofs of the Existence of God / Incompatible-Properties Arguments

Definition: arguments which attempt to show a logical inconsistency between two or more divine attributes

2.1.4.1. The Perfection vs. Creation Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html.

2.1.4.2. The Immutability vs. Creation Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html.

Gale, Richard M. On the Nature and Existence of God (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), chapter 2.

2.1.4.3. The Immutability vs. Omniscience Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

Gale, Richard M. On the Nature and Existence of God (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), chapter 3.

Kretzmann, Norman. “Omniscience and Immutability.” Journal of Philosophy 63 (1966): 409-420.

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 80.

2.1.4.4. The Immutability vs. All-loving Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.5. The Transcendence vs. Omnipresence Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.6. The Transcendence vs. Personhood Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.7. The Nonphysical vs. Personal Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.8. The Omnipresence vs. Personhood Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.9. The Omniscient vs. Free Argument

Barker, Dan. “The Freewill Argument for the Nonexistence of God.” Freedom From Religion Foundation (1997), http://www.ffrf.org/fttoday/august97/barker.html. Originally published in Freethought Today, August 1997.

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

Martin, Michael. Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 297-299.

2.1.4.10. The Justice vs. Mercy Argument

Drange, Theodore M. “Incompatible-Properties Arguments: A Survey.” Philo 2 (1998): 49-60. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/incompatible.html

2.1.4.11. The Omniscience vs. Omnipotence Argument

Sobel, Jordan Howard. Logic and Theism: Arguments for and Against the Existence of God (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

2.1.4.12. Omnipresence vs. Consciousness

McCormick, Matt. “Why God Cannot Think: Kant, Omnipresence, and Consciousness.” 3 (2000): .

2.1.4.13. Omniscience vs. Agency (Intentional Action)

Kapitan, Tomis. “Agency and Omniscience.” Religious Studies 27 (1991): 105-120. Republished at http://www.niu.edu/phil/~kapitan/pdf/AgencyandOmniscience.pdf (accessed November 7, 2001).

—. “The Incompatibility of Omniscience and Intentional Action: A Reply to David P. Hunt.” Religious Studies (1994): 287-292. Republished at http://www.niu.edu/phil/kapitan/pdf/IncompatibilityofOmniscienceandIntentionalAction1994.pdf (accessed November 7, 2001).

2.1.4.14. Omnipotence & omniscience & perfection vs. Agency

McCormick, Matthew.  “The Paradox of Divine Agency.” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, eds., The Impossibility of God (Buffalo:  Prometheus, 2003).

2.1.4.15. Omniscience & Perfect Freedom & Omnipotence

Martin, Michael. “Conflicts Between the Divine Attributes.” In Michael Martin and Ricki Monnier, The Impossibility of God (Buffalo: Prometheus), 242-257. Originally published in Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 287-92, 297-306, 315.

2.1.4.16. Omniscience, Moral Perfection, and an Indeterministic World

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 81-82.

2.1.4.17. Perfection vs. Freedom

Rowe, William L. “Divine Perfection and Freedom.” In Kelly James Clark and Raymond J Vanarragon, eds., Evidence and Religious Belief (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 175-185.

—. “The Problem of Divine Perfection and Freedom”, in E. Stump, ed., Reasoned Faith (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993), 223-233.

— . “The Problem of No Best World.” Faith and Philosophy 11 (1994): 269-271.

2.1.5. Single Attribute Disproofs of the Existence of God

Definition: arguments which attempt to show a logical inconsistency within a single divine attribute.

2.1.5.1. The Impossibility of a Creator of All Natural Laws

Fulmer, Gilbert. “The Concept of the Supernatural.” Analysis 37:3 (1977): 113-116.

2.1.5.2. The Impossibility of Omnipotence

Cowan, J.L. “The Paradox of Omnipotence.” Analysis 25 (1965): 102-108.

—. “The Paradox of Omnipotence Revisited.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (1974): 435-445.

Drange, Theodore. “Ten Atheistic Arguments.” Infidel Guy (2009), http://www.infidelguy.com/mobile/10_atheistic_arguments_7.php.

Martin, Michael. “Omnipotence.” In Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 302-315.

Sobel, Jordan Howard. Logic and Theism: Arguments for and Against the Existence of God (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 367-368.

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 82.

2.1.5.3. The Impossibility of Omniscience

Grim, Patrick. “Against Omniscience: The Case from Essential Indexicals.” Nous 19 (1985): 151-180.

—. “Logic and Limits of Knowledge and Truth.” Nous 22 (1988): 341-367.

Martin, Michael. “Omniscience.” In Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 287-297.

Pucetti, Roland. “Is Omniscience Possible?” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 41 (1963): 92-93.

2.1.5.4. The Impossibility of a Being Worthy of Worship

James Rachels, “God and Human Attitudes.” Religious Studies 7 (1971): 325-337. Republished as “God and Moral Autonomy.” In James Rachels, Can Ethics Provide Answers?: And Other Essays in Moral Philosophy (Boulder: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997), 109-123. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/james_rachels/autonomy.html.

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2.1.5.5. The Impossibility of a Divine Cause

Drange, Theodore. “Ten Atheistic Arguments.” Infidel Guy (2009), http://www.infidelguy.com/mobile/10_atheistic_arguments_7.php.

Related Partner Blog Posts: here

Smith, Quentin. “Causation and the Logical Impossibility of a Divine Cause.” Philosophical Topics 21:1 (1996): 169-191. Republised in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/causation.html.

2.1.5.6. The Impossibility of a Timeless Agent

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 80-81.

2.1.5.7. The Impossibility of a Logically Necessary Person

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 83-85.

2.2. “Evidential” Arguments for the Non-Existence of God

2.2.1. Big Bang Cosmology

Smith, Quentin. “Atheism, Theism, and Big Bang Cosmology.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (1991): 48-66. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/cosmology.html.

—. “A Big Bang Cosmological Argument for God’s Nonexistence.” Faith and Philosophy 9 (1992): 217-237. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/bigbang.html.

—. “Can Everything Come to Be Without a Cause?” Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review 33 (1994): 313-323. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/cause.html.

—. “A Cosmological Argument for a Self-Caused Universe.” In Paul Draper, ed., God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence on The Secular Web (2007-2008), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/self-caused.html.

—. “Quantum Cosmology’s Implication of Atheism.” Analysis 57 (1997): 295-304. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/quantum.html.

—. “Simplicity and Why the Universe Exists.” Philosophy 71 (1997): 125-32. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/simplicity.html.

—. “Stephen Hawking’s Cosmology and Atheism.” Analysis 54 (1994): 236-243. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/hawking.html.

—. “Two Ways to Prove Atheism.” Speech delivered before the Atheist Alliance convention on April 6, 1996. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/atheism.html.

—. “The Uncaused Beginning of the Universe.” Philosophy of Science 55 (1988): 39-57. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/uncaused.html.

2.2.2. Scale of the Universe (i.e., The Argument from Scale [AS])

Everitt, Nicholas. “Arguments from Scale.” In The Non-Existence of God (New York: Routledge, 2004), 213-226.

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2.2.3. Mind-Brain Dependence

Carrier, Richard. “Carrier’s Opening Statement.” In The Carrier-Wanchick Debate. The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/carrier-wanchick/carrier1.html (search on “The Argument from Mind-Brain Dysteleology (AMBD)”.

—. “Carrier’s Second Rebuttal.” In The Carrier-Wanchick Debate. The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/carrier-wanchick/carrier3.html (search on “The Argument from Mind-Brain Dysteleology (AMBD)”.

—. “Why I Am Not a Christian.” The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/whynotchristian.html (search on “The Human Brain”).

Conifer, Steven J. “Mind-Brain Dependence as Twofold Support for Atheism.” The Secular Web (2001), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/steven_conifer/mbd.html.

Lowder, Jeffery Jay. “The Empirical Case for Metaphysical Naturalism.” Internet Infidels Newsletter 4 (1999), http://www.infidels.org/infidels/newsletter/1999/march.html#Naturalism.

Melnyk, Andrew. “A Case for Physicalism about the Human Mind.” In Paul Draper, ed., God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence (2007-2008). In The Secular Web (2007), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/andrew_melnyk/physicalism.html.

—. “Physicalism and the First-Person Point of View.” In Paul Draper, ed., God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence (2007-2008). In The Secular Web (2007), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/andrew_melnyk/first-person.html.

Tooley, Michael. “Does God Exist?” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 93-97.

—. “Dr. Tooley’s Opening Statement.” In The Craig-Tooley Debate (1994). Republished in Leadership University (n.d.), http://www.leaderu.com/offices/billcraig/docs/craig-tooley2.html (accessed November 10, 2011).

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2.2.4. Biological Evolution

Carrier, Richard. “Why I Am Not a Christian.” The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_carrier/whynotchristian.html#origin.

Draper, Paul. “Evolution and the Problem of Evil” in Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology (3rd ed., ed. Louis Pojman, Wadsworth, 1997), 219-230.

—. “Natural Selection and the Problem of Evil.” In Paul Draper, ed., God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence (2007-2008). In The Secular Web (2007), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/nontheism/atheism/evil.html.

—. “On the Plausibility of Naturalism and the Seriousness of the Argument from Evil.”  In Paul Draper, ed., God or Blind Nature? Philosophers Debate the Evidence (2007-2008). In The Secular Web (2007), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/paul_draper/serious.html.

Gerkin, Kyle J. “A Counterclockwise Paley.” The Secular Web (2002), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/kyle_gerkin/counterclockwise.html.

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2.2.5. Evil (i.e., the Evidential Argument from Evil [EAE])

Drange, Theodore M. “The Arguments from Evil and Nonbelief.” The Secular Web (1996), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/aeanb.html.

—. Nonbelief and Evil: Two Arguments for the Nonexistence of God. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1998.

Draper, Paul. “God and Evil: A Philosophical Inquiry.” http://philreligion.nd.edu/plantinga/documents/1011Lecture.pdf (accessed November 10, 2011).

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Gale, Richard M. “Freedom and the Free Will Defense.” Social Theory and Practice 16 (1990). Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_gale/freedom.html.

—. “R.M. Adams’ Theodicy of Grace.” Philo 1 (1998): 36-44. Republished in The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/richard_gale/theodicy.html.

Martin, Michael. Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), 341-49, 361.

—. “Human Suffering and the Acceptance of God.” The Secular Web (1997), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/michael_martin/suffering.html.

Metcalf, Thomas. “An Argument from Non-Gratuituous Evil.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 328-336.

Oppy, Graham. “Why I Am Not a Christian.” The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/graham_oppy/whynot.html.

Parsons, Keith M. “A Simple Statement of the Problem of Evil.” The Secular Web (2011), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/keith_parsons/evil.html.

Rowe, William L. “The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look.” In Daniel Howard-Snyder (ed.), The Evidential Argument from Evil (1986) 262-85.

—. “The Empirical Argument from Evil.” In Audi and Wainwright (eds), Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment (1986), 227-47.

—. “Evil and Theodicy.” Philosophical Topics 16 (1988): 119-32.

—. “Grounds for Belief Aside, Does Evil Make Atheism More Reasonable than Theism.” In William Rowe (ed.), God and the Problem of Evil. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001), 124-37.

—. “The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism,” American Philosophical Quarterly 16 (1979): 335-341.

—. “Reply to Howard-Snyder and Bergmann.” In Rowe (ed.), God and the Problem of Evil, (2001) 155-58.

—. “Reply to Plantinga.” Nous 32 (1998): 545-52.

—. “Ruminations about Evil.” Philosophical Perspectives 5 (1991): 69-88.

—. “Skeptical Theism: A Response to Bergmann.” Nous 35 (2001): 297-303.

—. “William Alston on the Problem of Evil.” In Thomas D. Senor (ed.), The Rationality of Belief and the Plurality of Faith: Essays in Honor of William P. Alston (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995), 71-93.

Russell, Bruce and Stephen J. Wykstra. “The ‘Inductive’ Argument from Evil: A Dialogue.” Philosophical Topics 16 (1988). http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/bruce_russell/dialogue.html.

Russell, Bruce. “Defenseless,” in The Evidential Argument from Evil (ed. Daniel Howard-Snyder, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996), 193-205.
 
—. “The Persistent Problem of Evil.” Faith and Philosophy 6 (1989): 121-39.

—. “The Problem of Evil: Too Much Suffering.” (2004). In Introduction to Philosophy. 3rd ed. Edited by Louis P. Pojman. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004.

—. “Why Doesn’t God Intervene to Prevent Evil?” In Louis P. Pojman, ed., Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, 1996, 74-80. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/bruce_russell/intervene.html.

Tooley, Michael. “The Argument from Evil.” Philosophical Perspectives 5 (1991): 89-134.

—. “Does God Exist?”and “Closing Statement and Reply to Plantinga’s Comments.” In Michael Tooley and Alvin Plantinga, eds., The Knowledge of God (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2008), 70-147 and 237-241.

—. “Evil, Problem of.” In Tom Flynn, ed., The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief (Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 2007), 301-10.

Schellenberg, J.L. “Stalemate and Strategy: Rethinking the Evidential Argument from Evil.” In God and the Problem of Evil (ed. William L. Rowe, Malden, Massachussetts: Blackwell, 2001), 159-179.

Smith, Quentin. “An Atheological Argument from Evil Natural Laws.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 29 (1991): 159-74. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/anthropic.html.

—. “Two Ways of Proving Atheism.” The Secular Web (1996), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/atheism.html.

Tattersall, Nicholas. “The Evidential Argument from Evil.” The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/nicholas_tattersall/evil.html.

Vuletic, Mark I. “The Tale of the Twelve Officers.” The Secular Web (2002), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/mark_vuletic/five.html.

Weisberger, A.M. “Depravity, Divine Responsibility, and Moral Evil: A Critique of a New Free Will Defense.” Religious Studies 31 (1995) : 375-90. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/andrea_weisberger/depravity.html.

—. “The Pollution Solution: A Critique of Dore’s Response to the Argument from Evil.” Sophia 36 (1997): 53-74. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/andrea_weisberger/pollution.html.

—. Suffering Belief: Evil and the Anglo-American Defense of Theism. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

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2.2.6. Specific Facts about Evil

2.2.6.1. Biological Role of Pain and Pleasure

Draper, Paul. “Pain and Pleasure: An Evidential Problem for Theists.” Nous 23 (June, 1989), 331-350.

—. “More Pain and Pleasure: A Reply to Otte.” In Christian Faith and the Problem of Evil, ed. Peter van Inwagen (Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2004), 41-54.

Sennett, James F. “Theism and Other Minds: On the Falsifiability of Non-theories.” Topoi 14.2 (1995), 149-160. See Sections 4-7, pp. 154-159.

Silver, David. “Religious Experience and the Evidential Argument from Evil.” Religious Studies 38(3): 339-353.

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2.2.6.2. Flourishing and Languishing of Sentient Beings

Draper, Paul. “A Darwinian Argument from Evil,” unpublished paper.

2.2.6.3. Self-Centeredness and Limited Altruism of Human Beings

Draper, Paul. “A Darwinian Argument from Evil,” unpublished paper.

2.2.6.4. Divine Silence in the Face of Tragedies

Drange, Theodore M. Nonbelief and Evil (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1998), 208-11, 223-24.

Rowe, William. “The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look.” In The Evidential Argument from Evil (ed. Daniel Howard-Snyder, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996), 276.

2.2.6.5. Social Evil

Definition of social evil: an instance of pain or suffering that results from the game-theoretic interactions of many individuals. When a social evil occurs, responsibility for the outcome lies with no particular person and no impersonal force of nature; rather it lies with a group of people, each of whom may be morally in the clear. 

Poston, Ted. “Social Evil.” The Ammonius Foundation (2011), http://www.ammonius.org/assets/pdfs/Social%20Evil.pdf.

2.2.7. Facts about Divine Hiddenness

2.2.7.1. Lack of Evidence

Drange, Theodore M. “Nonbelief vs. Lack of Evidence: Two Atheological Arguments.” The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/anbvslea.html.

Stenger, Victor J. God: The Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows that God Does Not Exist (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2007), 21-22.

2.2.7.2. Nonbelief

Cosculluela, Victor. “Bolstering the Argument from Nonbelief.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 362-368.

Drange, Theodore M. “The Arguments from Evil and Nonbelief.” The Secular Web (1996), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/aeanb.html.

—. “McHugh’s Expectations Dashed.” Philo 5 (2002): 242-48.

—. Nonbelief and Evil: Two Arguments for the Nonexistence of God. Buffalo: Prometheus, 1998.

—. “Nonbelief vs. Lack of Evidence: Two Atheological Arguments.” The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/anbvslea.html.

—. “Nonbelief as Support for Atheism.” (1998), http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Reli/ReliDran.htm.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. “The Argument from Ignorance.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 380-84.

—. “The Real Argument from Ignorance.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 385-89.

Related SO posts: here

2.2.7.3. Reasonable / Nonculpable / Nonresistant Nonbelief

The following definition by Schellenberg is useful: “in the actual world persons who do not believe that there is a God, and that in at least some of these people the absence of theistic belief is not in any way the result of their own emotional or behavioral oppositiontowards God or relationship with God or any of the apparent implications of such a relationship.” See Schellenberg 2008.

Kuchar, Philip. “God, Atheism, and Incompatibility: The Argument from Nonbelief.” The Secular Web (2001), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/philip_kuchar/anb.html.
Schellenberg. J.L. Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason. Cornell University Press, 1992.

—. “Divine Hiddenness Justifies Atheism.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 413-426. Originally published in Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, ed. Michael L. Peterson and Raymond J. VanArragon (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), 30-41.

—. “Hiddenness Arguments I.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 195-226.

—. “Response to Howard-Snyder.” In Michael Martin and Ricci Monnier, eds., The Improbability of God (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006), 405-12. Originally published in Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26 (1996): 455-62.

—. “What Divine Hiddenness Reveals, or How Weak Theistic Evidence is Strong Atheistic Proof.” The Secular Web (2008), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/john_schellenberg/hidden.html.

Related SO Posts: here, here

2.2.7.4. Former Believers

Schellenberg, J.L. “Former Believers.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 228-32.

2.2.7.5. Lifelong Seekers

Schellenberg, J.L. “Lifelong Seekers.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 233-35.

2.2.7.6. Converts to Nontheistic Religion

Schellenberg defines converts to nontheistic religion as “individuals who investigate other serious conceptions of the Ultimate and who turn up evidence that produces religious belief in the context of nontheistic religious communities and/or on account of nontheistic religious experiences–and the truth of atheistic claims may be seen to follow by implication.”

Schellenberg, J.L. “Lifelong Seekers.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 236-38.

2.2.7.7. Isolated Nontheists

Schellenberg defines isolated nontheists as “those who have never been in a position to resist God because they have never so much as had the idea of an all-knowing and all-powerful spiritual being who is separate from a created universe but related to it in love squarely before their minds–individuals who are entirely formed by, and unavoidably live their whole lives within, what must, if God exists, be a fundamentally misleading meaning system.”

Schellenberg, J.L. “Isolated Nontheists.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 238-42.

2.2.7.8. The Demographics of Theism

Maitzen, Stephen. “Divine Hiddenness and the Demographics of Theism.” Religious Studies 42 (2006): 177-91. http://philosophy.acadiau.ca/tl_files/sites/philosophy/resources/documents/Maitzen_STMO.pdf

—. “Does Molinism Explain the Demographics of Theism?” Religious Studies 44 (2008), 473-77. http://philosophy.acadiau.ca/tl_files/sites/philosophy/resources/documents/Maitzen_Reply_to_Marsh.pdf

Related SO Posts: here
Related Partner Blog Posts: here and here

2.2.7.9. History and Success of Science

Draper, Paul. “Evolution and the Problem of Evil” in Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology (3rd ed., ed. Louis Pojman, Wadsworth, 1997), 223-224.

—. “God, Science, and Naturalism.” In William J. Wainwright, The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), chapter 11.

Parsons, Keith M. Science, Confirmation, and the Theistic Hypothesis (Ph.D. Dissertation, Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Queen’s University, 1986), 46. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/keith_parsons/theistic/.

Related Partner Blog Posts: here, here

2.2.8. Facts about Free Will

2.2.8.1. The Existence of Free Will

Schellenberg, J.L. “The Atheist’s Free Will Offence.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 56 (2004): 1-15.

—. “The Free-Will Offense.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 270-290.

2.2.8.2. Facts about the Set of Opportunities to Exercise Free Will

Schellenberg, J.L. “The Free-Will Offense.” In The Wisdom to Doubt: A Justification of Religious Skepticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007, 285-88.

2.2.9. Religious and/or Ethical Confusion

Berggren, Niclas. “On the Nature of Morality.” The Secular Web (1998), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/niclas_berggren/morality.html.

Drange, Theodore M. “The Arguments from Confusion and Biblical Defects.” The Secular Web (2006), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/confusion.html.

—. “The Arguments from Nonbelief and Confusion for the Nonexistence of God.” The Secular Web (1999), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/theodore_drange/drange-wilson/drange1.html.

2.2.10. Meager Moral Fruits of Theism

Draper, Paul. “Opening Statement” in The Craig-Draper Debate: Does God Exist? debate held at the United States Military Academy at West Point, 1997. See Jeffery Jay Lowder, “Summary and Assessment of the Craig-Draper Debate on the Existence of God.” The Secular Outpost (2011), http://secularoutpost.infidels.org/2011/10/summary-and-assessment-of-craig-draper.html.

2.3. Uncategorized Arguments for the Non-Existence of God

2.3.1. Atheistic Teleological Arguments

Martin, Michael. “Atheistic Teleological Arguments.” In Michael Martin, Atheism: A Philosophical Justification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990), Ch. 3. Republished in in R. Douglas Geivett and Brendan Sweetman, Contemporary Perspectives on Religious Epistemology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 43–77.

Salmon, Wesley C. “Experimental Atheism.” Philosophical Studies 35 (1979): 101-104.

—. “Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume’s Dialogues.” Philosophical Studies 33 (1978), 143–76.

2.3.2. Anthropic Arguments for Atheism

Walker, Mark. “The Anthropic Argument Against the Existence of God.” Sophia (7 Nov 2009), http://urbanphilosophy.net/files/anthropicargument.pdf.

2.3.3. Argument from Worship

Aikin, Scott F. “The Problem of Worship.” Think 9 (2010): 102-113. http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/philosophy/_people/faculty_files/_aikinworship.pdf

Aikin, Scott F. and Robert B. Talisse, Reasonable Atheism: A Moral Case for Respectful Disbelief (Buffalo: Prometheus, 2011), 147-162.

Related Partner Blog Posts: here, here

2.3.4. Taner Edis’s Disproof of God

Edis, Taner. “A Disproof of God.” The Secular Outpost (May 4, 2009), http://secularoutpost.infidels.org/2009/05/disproof-of-god.html.

2.3.5. Keith Parsons’s Argument from the Non-existence of a Sensus Divinitatus

Parsons, Keith. “Theism and the Genetic Fallacy, Part II.” The Secular Outpost (March 5, 2009), http://secularoutpost.infidels.org/2009/03/theism-and-genetic-fallacy-part-ii.html.

3. Arguments for the Non-existence of Specific Concepts of God

3.1. Arguments for the Non-Existence of Various Christian Conceptions of God

3.1.1. Logical Arguments for the Non-Existence of Various Christian Conceptions of God

3.1.1.1. Deductive Disproofs of the Existence of God

3.1.1.1.1. Incompatibility of Platonism with Divine Aseity & Creation Ex Nihilo

3.1.1.2. Multiple Attribute Disproofs of the Christian God

3.1.1.2.1. Incompatibility of (a) Holiness; (b) the Accuracy of Bible; (c) Normative Ethical Beliefs, and (d) Acts Attributed to God by the Bible.

Bradley, Raymond D. “A Moral Argument for Atheism.” Presented at the University of Western Washington, May 27, 1999, and–in a revised form–at the University of Auckland, September 29, 1999. Republished in The Secular Web (n.d.), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/raymond_bradley/moral.html.

3.1.1.2.2. Incompatibility of (a) Power; (b) Knowledge; and (c) Goodness.

Blumenfield, David. “On the Compossibility of the Divine Attributes.” Philosophical Studies 34 (1978): 91-103.

3.1.1.4. Single Attribute Disproofs of the Christian God

3.1.1.4.1. Incoherence of the Trinity

Related Partner Blog Posts: see here

3.1.2. Evidential Arguments

3.1.2.1. Arguments against the Resurrection of Jesus

3.1.2.2. Arguments against the Inerrancy of the Bible

3.1.3. Uncategorized Arguments Against the Christian God

3.1.3.1. Argument from Insufficient Knowledge of the Bible for the Nonexistence of the Christian God

Plugaru, Horia George. “Argument from Insufficient Knowledge of the Bible for the Nonexistence of the God of Christianity.” In The Secular Web (2005), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/horia_plugaru/aik.html.

3.1.3.2. Incoherence of Heaven
Martin, Michael. “Problems with Heaven.” The Secular Web (1997), http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/michael_martin/heaven.html.

3.1.3.3. Problems with Original Sin

3.1.3.4. Problems with Petitionary Prayer

3.1.3.5. David Lewis’s Argument from Divine Evil

Lewis, David. “Divine Evil.” In Louise M. Antony, Philosophers Without Gods: Meditations on Atheism and the Secular Life (New York: Oxford University Press), 231-42.

About Jeffery Jay Lowder

Jeffery Jay Lowder is President Emeritus of Internet Infidels, Inc., which he co-founded in 1995. He is also co-editor of the book, The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/13074560270292195498 Robert

    I would add …

    1.3.7. Religion is not a Separate Magisterium

    Yudkowsky, Eliezer "Religion's Claim to be Non-Disprovable", http://lesswrong.com/lw/i8/religions_claim_to_be_nondisprovable/

    Does this qualify as being academic?

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/10212971606135991995 Wes

    Paul Draper has been working on a paper for a while now that he calls "Simplicity." It's not published yet, but he's presented it several places and is willing to send it around if asked (he sent me a copy a few months ago). It's fantastic and should be added to the Burden of Proof section above when it comes out.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/11030669424412573308 Chris

    1.3.6 should be Gregory Dawes, not Robin Dawes.

    A very useful list, thanks for compiling it.

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/09496687749283004816 Michael Baldwin

    Nice list but, why no fine-tuning??

  • http://www.blogger.com/profile/10289884295542007401 Jeffery Jay Lowder

    Hi Michael — If you are asking why I didn't include the fine-tuning argument for God's existence in the list, the answer is because this is a bibliography on arguments for atheism. If you mean an argument from fine-tuning to atheism, then I would need to see a reference to that. I'm not aware of such an argument.

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