Anglican Cathedral Congregation Welcomes Witches

Just up the road in Asheville it seems the Episcopalians are welcoming witches onto their property to celebrate the Spring equinox together. The original news story is here and Midwest Conservative Journal waxes eloquent here.

As it happens Asheville witch Byron Ballard is cousin to a very good friend of ours who lives here in Greenville. What a small world it is! I hasten to add that our friend is a very good Catholic. No bedknobs and broomsticks or wicked old Wicca here, I can assure you.

Of course it is rather easy to poke fun at aging ladies in flowing robes and dangly earrings lighting candles and dancing around in a circle to celebrate the flowering of mother earth, and the Episcopal Church is an easy target for such ridicule, but we ought to stop chortling for a moment and realize that the witchy folks are very serious about their witchcraft, and while ridicule is one response we should remember that any sort of dabbling in the occult opens one to demonic infestation. All the literature on the deliverance ministry affirms that the easiest way to pick up a nasty spirit is through intentional occult activity.

This being the case, what can we say about the fact that a once Christian denomination–the Episcopal Church–and an Episcopal cathedral no less– is welcoming a pagan group of witches onto their property? We might be dismayed, but why should we be surprised?

When I was an Anglican priest fifteen years ago the feminists were already inserting prayers and canticles and other ‘alternative worship material’ which addressed God as ‘Mother’ and offered alternative liturgies to ‘Mother Wisdom–She by whom all things were created” etc. etc. Even then the feminists in the Church of England were saying, “Christianity is irreformably patriarchal. Nothing but a complete overhaul of the Judeo Christian religion from within will cleanse the patriarchal stain.” Fifteen years ago in the seemingly staid Church of England they were pushing to rid the liturgy of any reference to God the Father and change the language to affirm the Mother Goddess. The Cathedral in Asheville and the goings on there are, after all, not much different than what we get from lesbian Bishop-to-be Mary Glasspool and presiding bishop Schori in any case.

Does my link of witchcraft to Anglicanism displease conventional Anglicans? Can they deny that feminism and mother goddess worship is absent from their new liturgies and prayerbooks? No, because it is there. They can’t deny it, but will simply say, “But it’s not witchcraft! and besides, it’s only an alternative. You don’t have to use it!” It may not be witchcraft as such, but it is the same theology as the pagans–it’s just been slipped into a Christian setting using Christian sounding language. Or they may say, “They’re only meeting in the church hall. It’s not like they’re meeting in the cathedral proper!” Ever heard of the thin edge of the wedge?

So why be surprised when the same ladies take the short hop to fully fledged pagan Goddess worship? Fifteen years ago those of us who were opposed to women’s ordination said, “This is pagan and will lead to witchcraft in the church.” Hate to say I told you so…

  • Dogwart

    See Fr. our plan is working

  • flyingvic

    "Anglican Cathedral Welcomes Witches"? "Anglican congregation allows witches to use Parish Hall" would be more accurate, don't you think?I hope your use of language in your homilies, Father, is more precise than the sloppiness (or should I say cynicism?) evident in this blog.

  • Sancta Camerinus

    Oh how ecumenical! (Just joking).

  • shadowlands

    So if God is a woman, how does a female God and a female virgin make a male God? The Holy Spirit must be Male in my thinking. Two women do not a man make!And a God-Man at that!Our Father, who art in Heaven…..Our Lady is the best role model for women. The Devil lied in Eden to Adam and Eve telling them they would be 'as Gods'. He was a liar then and he's still using the same lies now because sin makes you thick eventually and he has no new imagination, just repetitive temptings and tauntings. Unfortunately we humans have very short term memories which works in his favour sometimes.That's why we have to become grounded in the truth and keep encouraging each other. Read the word of God. Colossians tells you the whole Christian deal in just a few pages! I always recommend it as the first book to read if one is just getting started with scripture. It's an exciting read and a real taster for further study. And if it doesn't excite you, well read it anyway to send you off to sleep. You can always try Hebrews next, that'll scare the hell out of you!

  • Neophyte

    Doesn't worship belong to the Church,the True Church the body of Christ? I mean you can't go along as you please and make up your own style of worship, adding this in and slipping that in and allowing an alternative etc..If so you might end up with 33000 plus denominations. Go figure.

  • The Crescat

    Asheville has a huge problem with witches and satanists stealing the Eucharist. If you go to St. Lawerence Basilica you will see the "Body" Guards on either side of the priest making sure every Host is consumed on the spot and that no one is trying to run off with it. That whole area is an "artistic" community and full of new agey fruits that the culture seems to attract.

  • Damien

    Flyingvic,Not that our good Father needs my help, but no, your statement is not more accurate. Both are true. The Cathedral parish is allowing the pagan celebration within one of its buildings. This is a welcome.With the 1st Commandment in mind, I think your point about the cathedral and hall is a distinction without a difference, especially since this deals with the diabolical.

  • flyingvic

    Damien, far be it from me to be pedantic, but there is a world of difference – perhaps even a heaven of difference – between a cathedral and a parish hall. Anyone reading the plain – and plainly misleading – headline "A C W W" would understand it to mean that witches were being welcomed into the cathedral building itself. In your critique of my post even you had to insert an extra explanatory word in order to invent the meaning you wanted the headline to carry.You try too hard – and your objection falls.

  • Deacon John M. Bresnahan

    Sadly, there are those who are promoting the same kind of silliness in the Catholic Church. Their real goal, in my opinion, is to destroy the Catholic church from inside the way the Episcopal Church is self-destructing. Hopefully all the Anglican parishes coming home to Rome will help put Satan and his demons to flight.

  • flyingvic

    Father, if I may speak for the Church of England – I know little of the things, some weird, some wonderful, that happen across the pond, so I could not possibly speak for the Episcopal Church – never, not even since the vote in Synod in 1992 that allowed the ordination of women, have I come across anything that could remotely be described as from the 'Our Mother' school of liturgy. It is not authorised; it is not present either in the Book of Common Prayer of 1662 nor in Common Worship (2000) – not even as an 'alternative'. You do your best to suggest that it is by your admixture of Church of England reminiscence and what I can only assume is your (limited?) knowledge of contemporary Episcopalian liturgy; but it is NOT true of the Church of England. "Can they deny that feminism and mother goddess worship is absent from their new liturgies and prayerbooks? No, because it is there. They can't deny it.." I can deny it and I do. IT IS NOT THERE.If you mean 'Episcopalian' then say so; using the word 'Anglican' as if it had exactly the same meaning is quite misleading.PS Skimming through the CofE's online resource for liturgy I did just come across "God chose to be our mother in all things". Surely you can't mean that?

  • Damien

    Flyingvic,I understand your point — there is a difference between the sacred and the profane and parish and building Still, the profanation doesn't have to take place in the sacred space of the church. The parish hall works, too.For the sacred people of God to allow the profane (worse even, the diabolical) to occur on its property is a contradiction. This is Father's headline.

  • flyingvic

    Damien, I don't think you do understand my point. I'm not defending the Episcopalians who allegedly issued the invitation; I'm attacking Father's misleading headline.Father has often fulminated against the way the Press presents stories about the Church in a very 'anti' manner. I find it ironic how often he then pursues Episcopalian stories with equal vigour.

  • John 6:54

    Looks more like Halloween than Spring equinox.

  • fried chicken strips

    In the same way merchants carried Christianity along the Silk Road into Asia Minor, so does corporate America deliver this pluralistic nonsense into every home. Every American has to marinade in this idea that every religion has equal status. Didn't Solomon try this with his harem, building alters to any and every god so each of his women could each participate in worship. Where did Israel go from there? They were delivered to their enemies. Where will we go? Will America concede to Shiara Law? How long?

  • flyingvic

    I'm not suggesting that this is in any way a parallel situation; it's just a thought that has occurred to me.Suppose that in the circumstances of a day we were to offer temporary shelter in a church hall to a homeless family of Moslems.Suppose further that we discovered that five times a day they were facing east in our church hall and bowing down in prayer to Allah.What would we, or should we, say or do?

  • Jonathan

    Flyingvic,My answer: Invite them from the church hall into the church proper; then if the five times a day schedule they're on don't synch with a catholic service, hand them a psalter or other prayers, and invite them to use it instead.

  • torculus

    Witches hosted in a church hall, not just any community hall, is the point.A priest friend, a former Canadian Anglican minister now married Roman Catholic priest, confirmed for me in a discussion last week the slick attempt by feminists to introduce Gaia worship into his former Anglican diocese's liturgies. As an Anglican, he exposed the attempt by identifying the source of the prayers – a book of rituals by Starhawk. Those promoting the attempted hijacking quickly rescinded their revised texts. I have been at Anglican liturgies in Canada on the west coast and over the years I have repeatedly encountered bizarre translations of the oldies which contained feminist language in place of the original text. In fact, at the baptism of a good friend's daughter the anthem used for the offertory was rife with earth mother imagery and praying to "God the Mother".What astonishes me is that we Roman Catholics have to put up with some brutally stupid revisions of hymns in the CBWIII which advocate pelagianism, pantheism and god the mother. I cannot express strongly enough how those non-Catholic ideologies must be purged from our hymnals if we in the pews are to survive the onslaught of paganism in secular society. And let's face it, it seems most people these days get their catechetical formation via the music sung at Mass. We need a Catholic hymnal in Canada.

  • David

    Flyingvic,The article and heading are perfectly accurate. Inviting the witches to use the Cathedral property to perform a pagan worship ceremony is "welcoming" them. There really is no other way of viewing it. Your attempt to excuse or at the least dismiss this is bizarre – it's inexcusable. And your analogy of sheltering Muslims is also not the point. The Cathedral wasn't sheltering homeless witches. You're trying too hard and it's shameful.

  • David

    Flyingvic,The article and heading are perfectly accurate. Inviting the witches to use the Cathedral property to perform a pagan worship ceremony is "welcoming" them. There really is no other way of viewing it. Your attempt to excuse or at the least dismiss this is bizarre – it's inexcusable. And your analogy of sheltering Muslims is also not the point. The Cathedral wasn't sheltering homeless witches. You're trying too hard and it's shameful.

  • David

    Flyingvic,The article and heading are perfectly accurate. Inviting the witches to use the Cathedral property to perform a pagan worship ceremony is "welcoming" them. There really is no other way of viewing it. Your attempt to excuse or at the least dismiss this is bizarre – it's inexcusable. And your analogy of sheltering Muslims is also not the point. The Cathedral wasn't sheltering homeless witches. You're trying too hard and it's shameful.

  • Alice C. Linsley

    BINGO! Another of many examples of how the Episcopal Church cut its last ties to Holy Tradition. You are to be thanked for speaking truth, Father. Thank you!

  • flyingvic

    "Inaccurate", David? Perhaps you should read more carefully what I actually posted. It is a little less clear than it once was because Fr L has now accepted my criticism and changed his headline by the addition of the word 'congregation'. Perhaps you were unaware of this – certainly it would explain why you have so completely missed my point.And "shameful", David? An "analogy"? Which bit of "I'm not suggesting that this is in any way a parallel situation" did I fail to make clear?And I guess you must have missed "I'm not defending the Episcopalians who allegedly issued the invitation; I'm attacking Father's misleading headline" from an earlier post in this thread.Go back and do your homework properly!

  • shadowlands

    I can understand how flyingvic gets annoyed with some of the comments having a go at him, here. My good friend, who is a convert from Anglicanism and a lawyer to boot (I know, dead posh ennit?) had to be very specific and sure in exactly what it was he was being encouraged to convert to.To change one's religion is a serious matter, and indeed if flyingvic is a Vicar,( which one would assume he is, as his obvious need for articulation with words would surely stop him from choosing such a username otherwise) this would involve a whole life alteration, at least until/if/when he becomes a Catholic priest, then our example as Catholics should be without reproach. We must not set ourselves up on some pedestal pointing fingers at those who God may have destined for some great work, on His behalf one day, such as a lifetime in Eternity for example!Flyingvic is a child of the most High, and Jesus Christ suffered and died in agony for him, and indeed would have done so, just for him, had that been necessary. So, let us remember that as we encounter him and not score points on who has the biggest grasp on the truth. Without love, we are just a bunch of clanging cymbals. Father Dwight has changed his header, responding with love, as he always does, and never frightened to admit errors or insensitivities. I try and take a leaf out of his book in my own behaviour, which often leaves much to be desired. (Blimey, that was written on one of my school reports years ago, now I come to think of it).

  • shadowlands

    Course,regarding flyingvic's username, it might be that he's a pilot called Victor.Sorry, hadn't thought of that.

  • Niall

    flyingvic:Can we get to the nub of the issue: Do you think that this – i.e. allowing these witches to take part in a Christian ceremony – was a right and godly thing to do? No hairsplitting or defensiveness, a simple yes or no will do.

  • flyingvic

    Niall, with all due respect -despite the patronising tone of your post – and since all I know of this issue has come from the information herein provided, taking part in a Christian ceremony is not the issue at all. My understanding is that the witches will be doing their own thing entirely.To answer your question, therefore, as nearly as I can: I would have no problem in inviting absolutely anyone of any faith or none to join me in Christian worship in my church (shadowlands was right first time!); I would not, however, wish my church or either of its church halls to be used for any religious purpose other than Christian worship. We have in the past welcomed local Baptist, Free Evangelical and Greek Orthodox congregations to use our premises during the temporary unavailability of their own.

  • Gail F

    The story does not make it clear whether the group merely rented the parish hall or is there on the approval/invitation/sponsorship of the church. There may be some sort of law that the church can't refuse to rent to anyone. We are talking TEC, I know, but still we should give them the benefit of the doubt. The Catholic university around here sometimes rents to wacky spiritual groups and sometimes sponsors them — not always both.As far as the "ecumenical" group itself goes — that is hilarious. The Wiccan woman running it says it's not a Wiccan ceremony, but an ecumenical one for people of all faiths to worship the goddess. Now that's a definition of "ecumenical" that I've never heard before. And while Fr. L is correct to say that any and all occult activity can open one up to demonic influence, that influence seems to content itself most of the time with making people full of self-importance and silliness instead of faith. And that seems quite enough to keep them away from God. My favorite sentence: "The celebration will consist of raising a circle, singing, “whistling up the wind” and flying prayers written on paper airplanes." Silliness indeed.Finally, flyingvic seems to be disgruntled about referring to The Episcopal Church as Anglican. Perhaps (understandably) the Anglicans in England wish to jettison them. But around here, they consider themselves to be part of the Communion and call themselves Anglican. And there are many good and faithful members of TEC who don't agree with what its leaders do. Just a reminder.

  • Lorraine

    I enjoy your blog Father!….Idolotry has infiltrated into hearts of many Christians because of infidelity to the Gospel….and I think it has spread across all denominations. Whether it be the idol of money or the idol of lust or of the dark forces of witchcraft or voo doo etc….they all amount to the idol of self-determination over God's. People continue to disobey God with the ancient perogative, "I will not serve". Same old serpent, same old sin. In the Catholic church we look to the deposit of faith handed down and protected through the centuries. This does not change even though there may be many dissident shepherds and laity bent on altering the doctrines. This is the distinct mark of Christ's Church, the unchangeable deposit of faith…and the promise that the gates of hell will not prevail. She harbors the immovable, unchangable Word of God. While we see other denominations caving to the cultural ideology of tolerance (such as allowing witchcraft into their sanctuary), the Catholic Church remains firmly anchored on the Rock. That is why so many Anglican brothers and sisters are seeing the light. They feel the sand shifting beneath their feet.

  • Suburbanbanshee

    Re: the Muslim family exampleGiven that the first thing a Muslim at his set prayers says is a denial of the Trinity and a proclamation of Mohammed as a prophet, it would be wrong to let a Muslim say these prayers in any Christian church. Even in the parish hall, it would be a case for carefully looking the other way in the name of hospitality.Muslims would feel exactly the same way about us saying simple prayers in the mosque. The "Our Father", the "Glory Be", and the "Hail Mary" all contradict the root tenets of their faith.We can always invite others to join us in Christian prayer, or even generically monotheistic prayer, in a church. But neither Jews nor Muslims nor Christians are really all that generic of monotheists, and that goes all the way down to basics.And yes, even Christian parish halls are places dedicated to serving Christ, even though they are not consecrated. (Though often, all of a parish's land is consecrated ground.) So we really shouldn't be letting people use them for purposes inimical to the Church (like pagan religious ceremonies). Food, drink, clothing and shelter for all human beings in need is a Christian duty; prostituting our buildings for non-Christian ceremonies is not.

  • Jody+

    Two words: Elizabeth Johnson. Listen to one of her lectures about liturgies performed in the RC church, or read books by the likes of Vergilio Elizondo, and one will see that syncretism is alive and well among our Roman brothers and sisters as well–and in some cases more obviously part of the tradition and piety than are the clumsy insertions of our odd liberal experiements.

  • George

    I am surprised at the unkind and patronizing comments from folks who seem to know Episcopal worship only through the guise of the Presiding Bishop and like-minded priests. There are plenty of Episcopal clergy who adhere to our catholic tradition more ardently than many Roman Catholics i have none (having grown up as a RC, i have had some experience there). It is frankly galling when people from outside our tradition, as if they had the Gospel all figured out, make general sneering mockery at the Episcopal Church as if we were all a bunch of crackpots. As a priest in the Episcopal Church who has huge problems with MANY things the TEC hierarchy dreams up and implements, we are a people just as faithful to God's call as the church in Rome. I do not consider the misbehavior of pedofile RC priests and their complicit superiors to be an indictment of Roman Catnolics. Some of us would appreciate the same generosity from our brothes and sisters in Christ in the Church of Rome. I would in no way condone for two seconds what is going on in Asheville so, please, do not make sweepting judgments without the occasional qualifier.

  • romishgraffiti

    Speaking of patronizing tones, let's try a quiz. Which of the following statements would have best avoided the extended Header Controversy? Something like this:"Respectfully father, I think the title of this entry is misleading. It would be more accurate to say something like, "Anglican congregation allows witches to use Parish Hall". In the interest of fairness, I think you ought to change it. God Bless."Or this: "I hope your use of language in your homilies, Father, is more precise than the sloppiness (or should I say cynicism?) evident in this blog."Anyone? Bueller? Bueller?

  • James

    Father, I know I am late to this party but could explain to me when the occult appropriated the Cross of St. Brigid? I don't believe I have ever seen this before.

  • SallyJune

    I am eternally grateful to the Episcopalian priest-ette who invoked, one Sunday in 1974 at a university chapel, "The God of the Universe." Not ONCE during that service did she use the Trinitarian address. This was my first step OUT of the Episcopal Church and into the Roman. Thus God makes use of all things.

  • flyingvic

    romishgraffiti, being patronising can come in all sorts of ways, as you so ably demonstrate yourself.If my reaction to to a misleading headline followed by several indiscriminate broadsides against my church was itself immoderate then I apologise. The point, surely, is that a professional communicator who knows how to use words should take great care when using them. Ambivalence can only undermine a writer's message.The best way to have avoided this controversy would have been for the writer to take more care in the first place. Father is robust, to say the least, in his criticism of those with whom he disagrees; he is also perfectly able to accept robust criticism in return.

  • Indigo

    For some of us if "God the Mother" isn't in a church as much as "God the Father" is then it's just not a church we'd like to be in come Sunday. There is nothing in the Christian Bible that says God can't be Mother as well as Father, in fact there are a couple of passages in the Bible that talk about God using very maternal language. The fact that "Jesus" prayed to "Our Father" doesn't mean that it's not equally as valid to see "God" as having both genders or even neither if that is preferred. God supposedly created us in His/Her image. As we are of two genders it stands to reason that God has both a masculine and a feminine side. Bottom line, God is really a spirit and it's very likely that it's neither, but if the person next to me prefers one designation over the other who really cares?At least they are there on Sunday, right?Churches of all sorts are closing down all over the place. Lack of money, lack of interest.The human race is changing more and more ever day particularly in terms of it's customs, religions and such. Christianity must change in some ways too or it surely won't survive past a few more hundred years. The people who say Christ never had female apostles and therefore women cannot be priests are quite wrong. That is a completely misogynist way of looking at Christ and the early church.Christ DID have female apostles. One of them brought him into this world and another was there at his feet with that first disciple when he was crucified.If the two devoted Mary's don't deserve that title of apostle then I ask you WHO DOES?To deny women their place in the church as priests, ministers, and such is actually very much against what Christ taught. He had women who followed him, who taught others his teachings, and who supported him in the bad times even when many of his male disciples fled in fear. To deny women this equal place in his church that's just plain not right and there is nothing "infallible" about believing in such a bigoted thing. Here we are in the 21st century and in some Christian churches women are still subordinate to men? When even Christ himself allowed women to learn from him, follow him, spread his gospel?I don't THINK so. Some of the Episcopalians may not be as conservative as they once were but at least I can walk into many of their churches and not feel like I should be sitting with my head covered behind some screen away from all the men like I was some sort of social pariah.Let them offer homage to "Her" as well as "Him." I'm all for it! In a church where "God the Father" and "God the Mother" are equal I can finally be equal too!

  • Andy

    Father Dwight,I'm and Anglican Deacon and a follower of your blog for the past year. I believe that there is a critical clarification to be made here. The Episcopal church has been screaming, by way of action, that they want no part of the Anglican Communion or Historic Anglicanism for that matter. It should be clarified that this sacrilege was wholly owned by the TEC.No true Anglican body on this continent would entertain such an outrage.Pax Vobiscum,Dcn Andy

  • flyingvic

    Gail F, I'm disgruntled about any suggestion that the words 'Anglican' and 'Episcopalian' are simply interchangeable. All Episcopalians are Anglicans; not all Anglicans are Episcopalians. This is not a matter for hard feelings; it's about the accurate use of language. Elsewhere on this thread George complains about the use of sweeping statements. I agree.

  • GOR

    I echo James: what is a St. Brigid's Cross (made from rushes and traditional in Ireland) doing in a Wiccan ceremony…?Perhaps the witch's slip is showing?

  • akira0238

    lol, Indigo did the best Christopagan impersonation I've ever seen in a combox! Bravo! Bravissimo!

  • shadowlands

    Indigo said"Let them offer homage to "Her" as well as "Him." I'm all for it! In a church where "God the Father" and "God the Mother" are equal I can finally be equal too!" I don't have any desire to be particularly equal with men, (whatever that means)but I do need a healthy self image, in order to obey the Commandment that tells me to love my neighbour as myself.The most empowerment I have ever experienced was from Our Mother Mary, after asking Jesus to let me get closer to her, if it was His Will. Talk about the L'oreal 'because you're worth it' hype, that the adverts speak about. Womanhood took on a whole new meaning for me.I learned to love myself from childhood up, for the first time, without the need to seek male approval or worldly pseudo equality. I wouldn't swap this affirming relationship that is available with Our heavenly Mother, for all the tea in China (and I like a cup of tea!).Try approaching your true heavenly Mother, given to you and me Indigo, by Christ, as He suffered and died for us, on the Cross.I promise you, you won't regret it.God bless and may Our Lady surround you with her protective mantle.

  • Richard

    Orthodox Anglicans are contending for acceptance in the broader Anglican Communion and must remember that within the AC there is a substantial liberal component. While we fight for acceptance in the communion we should not be overly disturbed when TEC is accurately referred to as Anglican. We can get so distracted by such minor distinctions that we totally miss the Father's warning of welcoming the occult into our midst. His warning is sound. Some posters here are totally willing to accept a view of our Deity that is contrary to that given by Jesus. He told Thomas that if he had seen Him, he had seen the Father. It may, indeed, be difficult to recognize the occult in subtle changes in rite and ritualism, but after all, the very meaning is "hidden". Is it wise to put God behind our backs and worship some vague replacement for the pagan Ashtoreth? Clearly the need for such redefining is a covetous need to elevate self above God. So the good father, whether a friend of Anglicanism and/or Anglicans, has given appropriate warning to all who have ears to hear, even to his own denomination.

  • becket

    And Catholics are into pagan worship Archdiocese 2010 RE Congress

  • shadowlands

    becket said"And Catholics are into pagan worship"I watched the video all the way through. The choir are singing about how incredible it is that Jesus Christ sets us free, and that the angels agree, and sing along in one accord?!!How is that pagan?OK, the women dancing a bit close to the altar did make me feel a bit queasy but liturgical prancing has never been my thing. I certainly don't mind hand clapping and the odd bit of jumping up and down to praise God, when you remember what He has done for us.

  • becket

    Here is a good point brought up by someone at CAF about this spectacle.Quote: “Saddening. This Mass was a purposeful and direct smack in the face to the Vatican and Catholic Liturgy. The Archdiocese chose to celebrate the closing liturgy of its big RE conference illicitly.For starters, the sacred vessels were glass and wicker.Yet, Instruction Redemptionis Sacramentum explicitly states that,“”Reprobated, therefore, is any practice of using for the celebration of Mass common vessels, or others lacking in quality, or devoid of all artistic merit or which are mere containers, as also other vessels made from glass, earthenware, clay, or other materials that break easily.”…ml#Chapter%20V ”