The religious tradition that we call "Hinduism" has constantly changed over its 3,500 year history, absorbing a myriad of cultural influences.
Schisms and Sects
The Hindu tradition encompasses four major sects—Shaiva, Vaishnava, Shakta, and Smarta—and dozens of minor subsects.
Exploration and Conquest
Hindus have not, generally, engaged in colonial conquest or empire building outside of India, although Hindu kingdoms were established in some parts of South and Southeast Asia.
Missions and Expansion
Hinduism has historically been a non-missionizing religious tradition. It has, however, spread to many parts of South and Southeast Asia, and to the West, and in the process has adapted to the cultural of these regions.
Two major developments in the modern era have posed significant challenges to Hinduism and have led to substantial internal changes: the British colonization of India beginning in the 18th century, and rising tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India.