A number of bodhisattvas were written about in the Mahayana texts and many have been embraced by popular culture. The monastic aspiration to become a bodhisattva gave way to the popular idea that one could call upon bodhisattvas for help. They became saviors, not only in spiritual realms, but also in the everyday world. For example, Avalokitesvara could, if one called out his name, rescue people from fires, floods, wild animals, and all sorts of dangers.
As Buddhism moved into China, Avalokitesvara changed gender and became female, and was known as Guanyin in China, Kannon in Japan. Many stories are told about her miraculous powers. Eventually multiple forms of Guanyin were revealed with different appearances and different specific abilities, such as healing illness or protecting pregnant women. One of the most striking forms is the thousand-armed Guanyin, each hand of which holds a different sacred implement.
Maitreya, the Buddha to come, is frequently seen represented in small good luck statues with a round tummy and laughing face. Jizo Bodhisattva is particularly popular in Japan as a protector of children. Amitabha is the Buddha of the Pure Land; one who calls his name at the moment of death will be instantly transported there, never to be reborn again. These are among thousands of deities worshipped in Buddhist countries today. Some are recognizable in form and iconography as having been in the Hindu pantheon; others are indigenous deities that have been transformed.
1. Describe the role of creation and destruction in samsara.
2. Who are the “saviors” of Buddhism?
3. How has art enhanced our understanding of Buddhist beliefs?