Written by: Stephen Taysom
Mormonism came into being as an officially organized church in April 1830, when 24-year-old Joseph Smith and five others gathered in upstate New York to form what was initially called the Church of Christ. Emerging in an atmosphere of intense religious activity (later referred to as the Second Great Awakening), there was little indication at the time that Mormonism would eventually become the largest church to originate on American soil. Nor did Smith's fairly typical background and upbringing suggest he would become the most important innovator in American religious history.
Smith's paternal and maternal ancestors lived in a number of New England towns and participated in civic and religious life. His parents (Joseph Smith, Sr., and Lucy Mack Smith) married in 1796. Many years of hardship followed. After many attempts to settle in five different communities, the family moved, along with thousands of other poor farmers, to western New York in search of better soil and a brighter future. They arrived in the small village of Palmyra in 1816, with eight children. Joseph Jr. was ten years old.
Like many around them, the Smiths were Christians but did not feel compelled either to attend church with any frequency or to join a particular denomination. The move to New York distanced the family not only from its New England roots but also from its lingering Calvinist heritage. On moving to Palmyra, the Smiths found Presbyterian, Quaker, Baptist, and Methodist churches. Some family members were for a time associated with the Presbyterian church, while Joseph Jr. seemed interested in Methodism. But he found the array of Christian faiths and the heated disagreements between them confusing and troublesome.
Joseph's confusion over which church to join, and how to be saved, was intensified by the heightened emotional atmosphere characteristic of camp meetings and other features of the evangelical revivalism that washed over the region in waves. In 1820, at age 14, his prayer for guidance led to an experience that became the founding event of Mormonism and gave rise to his career as a prophet. In his accounts of this event, recorded many years later, Joseph wrote of being nearly overwhelmed by darkness and then seeing a pillar of light encircling two beings, God the Father and Jesus. He was told that he was forgiven of his sins and that he was not to join any church, since none embodied the true faith; all had gone astray.
This experience, later called the First Vision, was followed three years later by a more specific prophetic call. Again a divine messenger appeared. An angel named Moroni told Joseph about an ancient book, made of gold plates, that was buried in a hill near his home. The book contained a history of an ancient American civilization. Joseph was to retrieve the plates and translate them. He soon found the plates as described in the vision but was forbidden by Moroni from taking possession of them until 1827.
After being hired to dig for purportedly buried Spanish treasure in Pennsylvania, Joseph was arrested in 1826 for disorderly conduct, a charge that included telling the whereabouts of lost or stolen goods. While in Pennsylvania, Joseph also met and fell in love with Emma Hale. Although her father disapproved of Joseph, the couple eloped and were married in 1827.