Women are surprisingly underrepresented in the chess world, representing less that 5% of registered tournament players worldwide and only 1% of the world’s grandmasters. In this paper it is argued that gender stereotypes are mainly responsible for the underperformance of women in chess. Forty-two male-female pairs, matched for ability, played two chess games via the Internet. When players were unaware of the sex of opponent (control condition), females played approximately as well as males. When the gender stereotype was activated (experimental condition), women showed a drastic performance drop, but only when they were aware that they were playing against a male opponent. When they (falsely) believed to be playing against a woman, they performed as well as their male opponents. In addition, our findings suggest that women show lower chess-specific self-esteem and a weaker promotion focus, which are predictive of poorer chess performance.
The sample size sounds really, really small to me but the findings if true are really thought provoking about the effects of self-confidence, self-perception, internalized social expectations, etc., on thinking under pressure. Or the study could involve expectations—maybe the women in the study expected different sorts of moves when they knew they were playing men and over-thought the games? Hard to say exactly what it shows (if anything).
Thanks to Feministing for the find.