Contradictions in the Resurrection Account

A Swiss Army knife with dozens of crazy "blades"How many days did Jesus teach after his resurrection? Most Christians know that “He appeared to them over a period of forty days” (Acts 1:3). But the supposed author of that book wrote elsewhere that he ascended into heaven the same day as the resurrection (Luke 24:51).

When Jesus died, did an earthquake open the graves of many people, who walked around Jerusalem and were seen by many? Only Matthew reports this remarkable event. It’s hard to imagine any reliable version of the story omitting this zombie apocalypse.

The different accounts of the resurrection are full of contradictions like this. They can’t even agree on whether Jesus was crucified on the day before Passover (John) or the day after (the other gospels).

  • What were the last words of Jesus? Three gospels give three different versions.
  • Who buried Jesus? Matthew says that it was Joseph of Arimathea. No, apparently it was the Jews and their rulers, all strangers to Jesus (Acts).
  • How many women came to the tomb Easter morning? Was it one, as told in John? Two (Matthew)? Three (Mark)? Or more (Luke)?
  • Did an angel cause a great earthquake that rolled back the stone in front of the tomb? Yes, according to Matthew. The other gospels are silent on this extraordinary detail.
  • Who did the women see at the tomb? One person (Matthew and Mark) or two (Luke and John)?
  • Was the tomb already open when they got there? Matthew says no; the other three say yes.
  • Did the women tell the disciples? Matthew and Luke make clear that they did so immediately. But Mark says, “Trembling and bewildered, the women went out and fled from the tomb. They said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.” And that’s where the book ends, which makes it a mystery how Mark thinks that the resurrection story ever got out.
  • Did Mary Magdalene cry at the tomb? That makes sense—the tomb was empty and Jesus’s body was gone. At least, that’s the story according to John. But wait a minute—in Matthew’s account, the women were “filled with joy.”
  • Did Mary Magdalene recognize Jesus? Of course! She’d known him for years. At least, Matthew says that she did. But John and Luke make clear that she didn’t.
  • Could Jesus’s followers touch him? John says no; the other gospels say yes.
  • Where did Jesus tell the disciples to meet him? In Galilee (Matthew and Mark) or Jerusalem (Luke and Acts)?
  • Who saw Jesus resurrected? Paul says that a group of over 500 people saw him (1 Cor. 15:6). Sounds like crucial evidence, but why don’t any of the gospels record it?
  • Should the gospel be preached to everyone? In Matthew 28:19, Jesus says to “teach all nations.” But hold on—in the same book he says, “Do not go among the Gentiles or enter any town of the Samaritans” (Matt. 10:5). Which is it?

And there are lots more.

Many Christians cite the resurrection as the most important historical claim that the Bible makes. If the resurrection is true, they argue, the gospel message must be taken seriously. I’ll agree with that. But how reliable is an account riddled with these contradictions?

I’ve seen Christians respond in three ways.

(1) They’ll nitpick the definition of “contradiction.” Contradictions, they’ll say, are two sentences of the form “A” and “not-A.” For example: “Jesus was born in Bethlehem” and “Jesus was not born in Bethlehem.” Being precise helps make sure we communicate clearly, but this can also be a caltrop argument, a way of dodging the issue. These sure sound like contradictions to me, but if you’d prefer to imagine that we’re talking about “incongruities” or “inconsistencies,” feel free.

(2) They’ll respond to these “inconsistencies” by harmonizing the gospels. That is, instead of following the facts where they lead and considering that the gospels might be legend instead of history, they insist on their Christian presupposition, reject any alternatives, and bludgeon all the gospels together like a misshapen Swiss Army knife.

  • How many women were at the tomb? Obviously, five or more, our apologist will say. When John only says that Mary Magdalene came to the tomb, he’s not saying that others didn’t come, right? Checkmate, atheists!
  • Why didn’t all the gospels note that a group of 500 people saw Jesus (instead of only Paul)? Why didn’t they all record the earthquakes and the zombie apocalypse (instead of only Matthew)? Our apologist will argue that each author is entitled to make editorial adjustments as he sees fit.
  • Was the tomb already open or not? Did Mary Magdalene recognize Jesus or not? Did Jesus remain for 40 days or not? Should the gospel be preached to everyone or not? Did the women tell the disciples or not? Was Jesus crucified the day after Passover or not? Who knows what he’ll come up with, but our apologist will have some sort of harmonization for these, too.

Yep, the ol’ kindergarten try.

(3) They’ll try to turn this weakness into a strength by arguing that four independent stories (the gospels aren’t, but never mind) shouldn’t agree on every detail. If they did, one would imagine collusion rather than accurate biography. Yes, biography and collusion are two possibilities, but a third is that this could be legend.

Let’s drop any preconceptions and find the best explanation.

Wandering in a vast forest at night,
I have only a faint light to guide me.
A stranger appears and says to me:
“My friend, you should blow out your candle
in order to find your way more clearly.”
This stranger is a theologian.
—Denis Diderot

(This is a modified version of a post originally published 4/9/12.)

Photo credit: ThinkGeek

Acknowledgement: This list was inspired by one composed by Richard Russell

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  • Gerry

    Erick, those accounts do not claim to be the perfect infallible word of god. The bible makes this claim. Even if 1 gospel omits information, another gospel including it would be ok, providing the 2 bits of information were not conflicting. But they are here. In addition, an earthquake producing a zombiepallooza, a dude resurrecting from the dead, and all other “miracles” proclaimed in the gospels should have corroboration from sources outside the bible to be considered relevant. Surely these remarkable events would have wide coverage from numerous authors, and surely a perfect, all knowing god who wants his glory known so that all could be saved would ensure good press coverage. But there is no corroborating evidence…..just the error ridden, atrocity laden, man made bible….you know, the one you believe to be the perfect, infallible word of god.

  • Gerry

    Wow Eric! By the same logic, Santa must be real. After all, 3 major networks all put out animated/claymated/puppet stories about Santa in the 1960s. There were inconsistencies on many details in the accounts, but all agree that on Xmas eve Santa pilots a sleigh powered by 8 reindeer through the skies to bring gifts to every child on earth. Praise Santa!

  • Guest

    How many of the supposed quotes of Jesus should just be chalked up as the literary style of the authors of the Gospel?

  • Jacob’s Trouble

    Resurrection forensic: the sequence of events to harmonize the gospel accounts.

    Mary Magdelaine, Joanna, another Mary and Salome heads for the tomb on Sunday at dawn. They find the tomb empty. Mary Magalene heads back to inform John and Peter.

    Meanwhile the other women are greeted by angels. They are told that Jesus is risen and that they should convey this to the disciples. On their way (different way than the one they came) to inform the disciples, they meet Jesus.

    On hearing from Mary Magdalene about the empty tomb, John outruns Peter to the tomb and Mary Magdalene trails. After establishing that the tomb is empty John and Peter returns leaving Mary crying at the tomb. Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene.

    • Greg G.

      But in Luke, the whole group of women leave and tell the eleven and Peter runs out to the tomb again?

      • Pofarmer

        Which then goes right back to, if early Christians knew where the tomb was, why wasn’t there tomb veneration early on?

        • Greg G.

          Possible Excuses:
          1. They did but the Romans undid it.
          2. They did but it was economically impossible to maintain because of the lack of Christian tourism.
          3. It was so highly sucessful that it spawned copycats, each claiming to be the REAL Resurrection site with a guy who claimed to be the REAL Peter. Early Christians wouldn’t know a real resurrection site from a hole in the ground.

  • Glenn Harpold

    Were the Bin Laden accounts advertised as inspired of god?

    • Gary Whittenberger

      Also, were they inconsistent on minor details or on major ones?

      Also, which of the reporters were present in the same room that Bin Laden was shot and which were not?

      Were any of the reporters talking about a supernatural event?

  • Gary Whittenberger

    But these are not minor details and they are mentioned in only one Gospel:

    Dead persons coming out of their graves and walking around Jerusalem.
    A Roman soldier piercing Jesus’ side with a spear.
    The posting of guards at the tomb.
    The beloved disciple.
    An angel rolling back the stone.
    The women touching the feet of Jesus.

    There should be consistency on MAJOR DETAILS, especially if all the authors were guided by the Holy Spirit, and there isn’t.

  • Gary Whittenberger

    Not only is it unlikely that the Gospel writers were eyewitnesses, it is unlikely that they interviewed eyewitnesses. For example, we don’t read things like “I interviewed Peter at the home of John on the outskirts of Jerusalem during the ninth hour of the day during the tenth year of Pilate. He said…”

    • Bob Seidensticker

      You might think that people of the time hadn’t thought to document historical claims in ways that we think are natural, but there are other documents from this time that do pretty much what you’re asking for–give sources, critique their reliability, and so on. I believe I read this from Richard Carrier.

  • Gary Whittenberger

    I believe that it is possible that Jesus came back to life, but I believe this is extremely improbable. It is unreasonable to believe that he did.