A Church with Bibles (Literally) in the Walls Opens in Chattanooga

There’s a new $8,500,000 church opening in Chattanooga this week. But it’s better than other churches, you see. It’s a mega-church that strives to be a meta-church, transcending denominations and welcoming all Christian traditions under its roof.

Oh. And it’s made partly out of Bibles. Actual, physical Bibles. Because that’s how architecture works:

What I imagine were the blueprints for the International Conference and World Church Center

Builders of the headquarters of the International Congress of Churches and Ministers and its International Conference and World Church Center on Lee Highway implanted about 900 Bibles in the metal wall studs and ceilings and 100 more in its concrete sidewalks.

“When you come in here, you’re surrounded by the word of God,” said Michael Chitwood, founder and chief executive of ICCM.

Okay, that aside, is this whole thing just a waste of space and money like the recent Triple Crosses (in the same city), or is there some “higher purpose” to it all?

“It seems that in Baptist churches, Baptists want to hang together. In Churches of God, Church of God people hang together. In Methodist churches, Methodists hang together,” [Chitwood] said. “It seems like there was no neutral venue where all brothers and sisters in Christ can come together.”

Right… No neutral venue where Christians can gather.

Except for country music concerts, Congress, and all of Alabama.

(By the way, if you like loud, blaring music and animated fire, check out the website for ICCM. It seems they can afford a multi-million-dollar church but not a website designer…)

But here’s the best part: There will be classes offered at the center that are sure to be a hit:

One of the ICCM meetings this week will be the free millionaire wealth seminar to help people financially and teach them how to handle debt, Chitwood said. People who want to have their own business may be interested, he said.

“Wealth is not how much you make, but how much you keep,” Chitwood said. “We teach a strong program of financial breakthrough.”

Makes sense, I guess. The program is free, but if you are lucky enough to get out of debt and make some real money, the church will undoubtedly pressure you into giving them a chunk of it.

On the positive side, Chitwood says the church is also committed to feeding the local poor through its kitchen. That’s a nice touch. More of that, please. As it stands, there’s just too much to

(Image via Shutterstock — Thanks to Alex for the link!)

About Hemant Mehta

Hemant Mehta is the editor of Friendly Atheist, appears on the Atheist Voice channel on YouTube, and co-hosts the uniquely-named Friendly Atheist Podcast. You can read much more about him here.

  • Stev84

    Just another prosperity gospel huckster who is only inclusive because it brings him more money.

    And that website….urk…

    • http://benny-cemoli.myopenid.com/ Benny Cemoli

      More so than you think. The Founder of the ICCM,, Michael Chitwood, is also running a church management and tax conference business. Now that’s gotta be a money maker.

  • http://benny-cemoli.myopenid.com/ Benny Cemoli

    . . . implanted about 900 Bibles in the metal wall studs and ceilings and 100 more in its concrete sidewalks.

    So I would assume that all these bibles in the walls and sidewalks adhere to the appropriate fire and environmental codes concerning flammable and hazardous material?


    • Don Gwinn

      They should be just about the same as a block of wood, if they’re closed. But like Islandbrewer, I thought we were going to be talking about entire walls built from bibles set like blocks. That would have been kinda cool. This way seems more like superstition . . . think there’s anything in their bible that suggests this kind of thing does any good?

  • flyb

    House of lies.

  • Timmah

    For some reason all I can think of is how in Ghostbusters the Gozer worshipers designed a skyscraper out of odd materials to be a giant antenna to draw in their god.
    If a giant marshmellow Jesus starts stomping Chattanooga into the ground, don’t say I didn’t warn ya.

    • Paula M Smolik


      • Timmah

        FYI Marshmellow Jesus will come for the spelling police first. So it is written. (By me. Just now)

        • allein

          Marshmellow Jesus is just really chill, man…

          • http://itsmyworldcanthasnotyours.blogspot.com/ wmdkitty

            Yeah, ‘cept he totally bogarts the joints.

    • http://www.holytape.etsy.com Holytape

      Egon Spengler: The structure of this roof cap is exactly like the kind of telemetry tracker that TBN uses to identify suckers with money in the mid-west..

      Ray Stanz: Cold riveted bibles with cores of pure bullshit.

      Peter Venkman: [to jailbirds] Everyone getting this so far? So what? I guess they just don’t make them like they used to.

      Stanz: No! Nobody ever made them like this! The architect was an authentic wacko! I mean, bibles are shitty building materials.

      Venkman: Ray, for a moment, pretend that I don’t know anything about metallurgy, engineering, or physics, and just tell me what the hell is going on?

      Stanz: You never studied. The whole building is a huge super-conductive antenna that was designed and built expressly for the purpose of pulling in and concentrating gullible people with money. Your girlfriend, Pete, goes to church at Doop Central.

      Venkman: She’s not my girlfriend. I find her interesting because she’s a client and because she sleeps above her covers. Four feet above her covers! She barks, she drools, she claws…

      Spengler: It’s not the girl, Peter, it’s the building! Something terrible is about the enter our world and this building is obviously the door. The architect’s name was E. W. Kenyon. I found it in Wikipedia. He wasn’t so much a preacher, as he was a failed actor and a used piano salesman . And then in 1920 he founded Bethel Bible Institute.

      Venkman: Let me guess: Jesus worshippers?

      Spengler: Right.

      Venkman: [to Stanz] “No studying”!

      Spengler: After the First World War, Granville “Oral” Roberts decided that society was too rich and stupid. And he wasn’t alone; he had close to a thousand followers when he died. They conducted rituals up on the roof, bizarre rituals intended to bring about the end of the world, and now it looks like it may actually happen!

      Venkman: [singing] So be good, for goodness sake! Whoa! Somebody’s coming! Somebody’s coming!

      Ray Stanz: We have to get out of here. We’ve gotta get a judge or something.

      Zeddmore: Hey, wait a minute! Hold it! Now are we actually gonna go before a federal judge, and tell him that some moldy Babylonian god is gonna drop in on Central Park West and start tearing up the city?!

      Spengler: Sumerian, not Babylonian.

      Venkman: Yeah. Big difference.

      Zeddemore: No offense, guys, but I gotta get my own lawyer.

      • Timmah

        Brilliant. Now I have to go watch Ghostbusters tonight.

      • C.L. Honeycutt

        Okay, this one needs to be posted on the front page somehow.

  • islandbrewer

    Well crap! When I first read the title, I thought it might be a building made nearly completely out of books, like some christian hipster modern art project. Like some christian Christo and Jean-Claude. My first thought was, “Well, that’s cool! I’d go see that!”

    But they’re only implanted, for huckster purposes.

    Big disappointment!

    • C Peterson

      A big disappointment indeed! When I first saw the headline, I was already looking forward to the ironic joy of a church that would collapse after the termites ate its biblical walls.

      • Oranje

        Straight out of Julian Barnes, it feels like.

    • JET

      Reading just the headline, I thought they were recycling old Bibles as some (probably dangerous) wall insulation. Oh, good, an actually useful purpose vs. I hope there’s no one in the building when it burns down.

      • phantomreader42

        That’s what I was thinking too. Wondering if books or shredded paper would have good insulating properties.

    • allein

      They should do it like the Kansas City(?) library that looks like a giant bookshelf.

  • James Lindsay

    “Neutral area for all [Christians]” says a lot about how well their internal squabbles go. I think it is massively in the advantage of secularists to constantly remind people of those internal squabbles, highlighting them whenever possible. Sectarianism just can’t succeed because no one outside of the sect (and that will always happen over disagreements) has any real reason to take the sect seriously.

    • grindstone

      I wish I could up-vote more than once…..what folks who weren’t steeped in religion from a young age don’t realize is that there is very little commonality, a dash of pecking order, and a whole heap of separation between the various Xtian sects. If you can’t even agree among yourselves, why should I listen to you?

    • http://gamesgirlsgods.blogspot.com/ Feminerd

      Heh. I did that once in high school. As a Jewish kid at a Texas school, I had a Baptist and a Catholic both trying to convert me at the same time. I kept reminding them that they thought each other was going to Hell too, and asking why I should pick one over the other. It was a glorious, hilarious discussion (we had a substitute and were bored, so just talked/debated the whole 1.5 hour class).

  • islandbrewer

    “It seems like there was no neutral venue where all brothers and sisters in Christ can come together.”

    Holy ground, Highlander!

  • Art_Vandelay

    “When you come in here, you’re surrounded by the word of God,” said Michael Chitwood, founder and chief executive of ICCM.

    Great, so in your attempt to be inclusive to all Christians, you’ve immediately excluded all of the sects that don’t think the bible is the word of God.

  • Michelle D.

    This kind of thing is pretty common. Massive 9,000+ seater Southeast Christian Church in Louisville, KY was constructed several years ago, and before the sanctuary was carpeted and had seats installed, congregation members were encouraged to come and write their favorite verses of scripture on the bare concrete floor. It was the same idea–write the verses and we’ll be surrounded by “The Word” and it will also be a symbolic reminder of stuff and things. It also provides believers with a “woo” moment of fuzzy feelings and whatnot. Sigh. I used to be a member of that church, and am now an atheist. I feel fine walking around in buildings with no scripture in the walls or on the floor.

    • allein

      Seems kind of blasphemous to me…they’re walking all over the Word of God?

      • http://www.vainminutiae.blogspot.com/ Michelle D.

        Yeah, you’d think somebody would have an issue with that. Maybe some closet non-believers take some small joy in it. :)

    • Sugah Wahls

      How pagan of them.

    • Rod

      Did anyone ever write, “Beware the false prophet”?

      • http://www.vainminutiae.blogspot.com/ Michelle D.

        If only I’d deconverted sooner. :)

  • Mario Strada

    Love the website.
    I was watching the intro (who does that?) and I suddenly realize that I has my Xbox controller in my hands.

  • skinnercitycyclist

    “Except for country music concerts, Congress, and all of Alabama.”

    Yeah, I imagine Catholics will be as welcome in this church as they are in Alabama.

  • Tainda

    “Except for country music concerts, Congress and all of Alabama”

    That is classic! Not to mention, oh so true

    I also read that as $85,000 and then choked on my lunch when I saw it was 8.5 mil.

  • Oranje

    I wonder if the prosperity gospel people would fill their walls with shredded money like they sell at the gift shop of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

  • newavocation

    Maybe we can learn something from them. Wouldn’t an atheist training facility equivalent be interesting?

    • C.L. Honeycutt

      I don’t know about that. In order to be their complete equals-yet-opposites, we’d have to have training seminars about how to not get scammed by the people running the seminar. People would get suspicious of our attempts to prevent them from allowing us to take their money.

  • randomfactor

    “Wealth is not how much you make, but how much you keep,”

    Tax scam.

    • Greg G.

      Hovind 3:16

  • koseighty

    This verse came to mind on hearing that these bibles are sealed up in the walls and ceilings:

    “No one, when he has lit a lamp, puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, that those who come in may see the light.”

    ~ Luke 11:33

    As an atheist and recovering christian, sometimes I can’t help but hear scripture scream out at me at times like this.

    Of course, another thought that springs to mind: “Out of sight, out of mind.” And I think we can all agree they are out of their minds.

  • Tom

    Oh look, magical thinking. Did he put some witch bottles in the walls too?

    Also, I find it symbolically disturbing simply that anyone could make a gigantic purchase of books with the intention that they never be read by anyone.

    Perhaps I’m a hypocrite. Secularists already have buildings like this, where you can go to be surrounded by words, and it produces almost a palpable, pleasant feeling just to stand in one – but, since our architects were thinking practically instead of magically, there’s a greater variety of texts and you can actually get at them to read them. It’s called a “library.”

    • The Other Weirdo

      Christians don’t really read Bibles anyway, except for very specific passages. How else do you think they could make the Bible they most printed book in the world?

  • BobaFuct

    There’s gotta be an Xzibit joke in there somewhere…

    • Mitch

      Yo dawg (or gawd, they’re almost the same word), I heard you like readin the Word so we put the Word where you read the Word so you can be immersed in the Word while u immersed in the Word.

      • http://itsmyworldcanthasnotyours.blogspot.com/ wmdkitty

        So it’s basically like hanging out in an (ancient) Egyptian temple?

  • Paula M Smolik

    I used to worry about tearing a page. Now we can bury them in concrete!

  • Gabriel


  • trj

    That website is really working. I think I was saying “Jesus Christ” and “Oh my god” at least half a dozen times while I visited it.

  • http://abb3w.livejournal.com/ abb3w

    Talismanic psychology, where it is believed that proximity of certain “special” objects suffices to influence the environment?

    • http://friendlyatheist.com Richard Wade


  • Sideshow Billybob

    Rumor has it that a few of those Bibles were actually Qur’ans….

  • Monika Jankun-Kelly

    Nothing about Bibles in walls bothers me. I see nothing to criticize here. Honestly don’t understand why this was posted at all. Their decor is meaningful to them and doesn’t harm me in any way whatsoever. The remarks about tithing could apply to any church. The clergy’s comments about a neutral venue seemed quite reasonable to me. Yes, Christians are the powerful majority that runs almost everything and is mostly blind to its own privilege. Doesn’t mean they’re united and monolithic. They do break up by denominations and accuse each other of not being Real Christians ™ all the time. Wish I had a dollar for each time they do it! So this group wants to build a church that isn’t strongly denominational. Again, why should I have a problem with this? What’s it got to do with me? Mega-churches do have greater power to cause harm, but what specifically about this one makes it worthy of calling out in the blog??? Can’t we stick to topics like church / state separation, discrimination against atheists / women / gays, Christian privilege, debunking stereotypes, promoting pluralism, and such?

    • Sideshow Billybob

      I can think of eight and a half million reasons….

      • Monika Jankun-Kelly

        I doubt not putting Bibles in walls would have reduced the 8.5 mil cost of the huge showy mega-church.

        This whole post, and almost all the replies, just feels like condescension towards the religious. There’s quite enough awful stuff for us to legitimately criticize without having to publicly point and laugh at every single little thing like how they choose to decorate.

        • Greg G.

          It’s not as if every church is being made fun of because of how they choose to decorate. It’s just the ones that are getting free publicity because of the way they choose to decorate. They are fair game for ridicule.

          • Monika Jankun-Kelly

            Why? What’s ridiculous about it, and why should any of us care if they get some press about a non-traditional decorating choice? I’ve seen libraries, bookstores, restaurants, art museums, and other public spaces decorate with books and many other objects. So what? How is this a problem? Government backed school prayer is a real problem. Tax exemptions for churches are a real problem. Bibles as decor are not even remotely a problem. Atheists being perceived as a group of rude jerks is a problem. Blog posts like this don’t help.

            • Anna

              Well, these people are advertising their church. They want press. That’s why the newspaper wrote an article about them in the first place. I’m not one to criticize them solely for their decorating choices, but it’s not like they were minding their own business and atheists decided to seek them out. Since they decided to put themselves out there in the marketplace of ideas, I don’t think they should be surprised if some of the feedback they receive is negative.

              • Monika Jankun-Kelly

                It’s not reasonable critique that I’m objecting to. People have made some comments about the ridiculous 8.5 mil cost of the place, and I don’t have a problem with that critique. But what is the title of Hemant’s blog post? What’s he focusing on? What are lots of the reader comments about? The Bibles in the walls. If the post had been focused on what’s troubling, financially and doctrinally, about mega-churches, I wouldn’t have objected.

                • Anna

                  What about the superstitious nature of embedding Bibles into the walls? I think that’s worthy of critique. It’s a rather obvious example of the type of supernaturalism that runs rampant in our society. Most Christians are used to accolades when they treat the Bible as an object of veneration. I think it’s good for there to be dissenting voices pushing back against that sort of thing.

                • Monika Jankun-Kelly

                  Reasonable question. If they said they expect Bible walls to have magical wish granting or faith healing properties, critique away. I didn’t see them making such claims. To me, it read more like they wanted a physical reminder of their religious teachings. [edit: They see Bible teachings as the foundation for their life, so Bibles in architecture makes sense as a physical metaphor, for them.] I disagree strongly with their teachings and I’m not giving them accolades for their decor, but I see no reason to be bothered by the decor.

                • Anna

                  Well, there was this:

                  “When you come in here, you’re surrounded by the word of God,” said Michael Chitwood.

                  These Christians obviously believe that the Bible has supernatural properties. While I don’t think this case should warrant the harshest of criticism, it’s a good reminder of the utter absurdity of religion. Imagine wasting all that time, money, and energy acquiring 900 Bibles only to bury them within the walls of a structure. What purpose could it possibly serve? It just shows these people’s inclination towards superstitious, magical thinking. The Bibles aren’t even visible, so it’s not like it’s an aesthetic choice. They just like knowing that the copies are there because of their belief that the Bible is a holy book.

                • Guest

                  Duplicate comment.

  • Emily Fleming

    Ah – and here I thought they’d gone with a really neat sealed-paper recycled-book structure, along the lines of bottle houses or hay-bale houses, which would have been really neat from an ecological standpoint and a very sustainable use of second-hand books.

  • Bdole

    It seems they can afford a multi-million-dollar church but not a website designer…)

    Our side isn’t faultless in this. Let he who is without comic sans on billboards cast the first stone.

    • C Peterson

      “Our side” isn’t flush with money.

  • KMR

    Meh. Christians do stuff like this all the time. I know a very nice couple that when they built their home they hid Bibles in the walls, floors, wrote verses and then painted over them, etc. It’s a tangible way to express your faith and people do it as a way to say, “Look! I take this shit seriously!” It’s why I named my children Biblical names and for one spelled it in such a funky way that she will never, ever be able to buy a cute, generic key ring with her name on it. I owe that kid an apology big time.

    • allein

      As one who has never been able to buy a key ring at a gift shop, yes, yes you do. ;)
      (Though at least my name isn’t biblical.)

      • Anna

        Heck, my name isn’t even that unusual, and I still could almost never find personalized items growing up.

        • C.L. Honeycutt

          Blame your parents for spelling it backwards.

          • Anna


  • A3Kr0n

    Isn’t embedding bibles in the walls and, especially the sidewalk, a sure ticket to eternal Hell? Who’s making these rules here?

    • Artor

      I’m sure they have good intentions. Those have been known to make good paving materials.

  • Anna

    “It seems that in Baptist churches, Baptists want to hang together. In Churches of God, Church of God people hang together. In Methodist churches, Methodists hang together,” [Chitwood] said. “It seems like there was no neutral venue where all brothers and sisters in Christ can come together.”

    I love how his version of “neutral” is evangelical-style Christianity. Would a Methodist ever want to come within ten feet of a church like this?

    • allein

      Not me. (When I was Methodist.)

    • Logics

      “It seems that in Kiwanis clubs, Kiwanians want to hang together. In Rotary clubs, Rotarians hang together. In Lions clubs, Lions hang together. it seems like there is no neutral venue where all service club members can come together.”

      Did this guy really think about what he was saying or what he wanted to accomplish? I know the Kiwanis, Rotary and Lions have nothing but respect for each other and the work they do but that does not mean that they have to find a place to meet together, does it?

      Is that the biggest issue out there today for churches, theater groups, photography clubs and dance troops today; finding a place where they can come together under common ground?

      Besides, if the UWI Camera Club, the Colour Photography Club and the UTech Camera Club were to build a meeting hall together, would it benefit us to embed cameras, flashes or Ansel Adams prints in the walls? I think not!

      …but that’s just me.

  • Gringa123

    The mega church near where I used to live in DC had finance classes, and I just found that my local mega church in my new locale has a “Financial Peace University.” This is very strange to me.

    Website says:

    We all need a plan for our money. Financial Peace University (FPU)
    teaches God’s ways of handling money. Through video teaching, class
    discussions and interactive small group activities, FPU presents
    biblical, practical steps to get from where you are to where you’ve
    dreamed you could be. This plan will show you how to get rid of debt,
    manage your money, spend and save wisely, and much more! FPU classes
    meet for around an hour and a half each week for nine weeks.

    • Andrew Ayers

      FPU is Dave Ramsey’s shtick – the thing is, though, once you get past the religious angle of it, the advice is sound; it’s also very basic – and something more than a few people should understand and practice:

      Plan a budget, live within the budget, pay cash for everything. As a part of the budget, budget some savings. But the real trick is the “debt snowball”: Pay off the smallest creditors first, then roll those payments into the next largest, until you are left paying your mortgage (if you have one). A mortgage is the only “good debt”, because it is “secured debt”.

      Also – don’t purchase a new car, or lease a car; buy used instead. Don’t buy “extended warranty” coverage (in general). Follow the four “R”s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Repair). Be a maker, not a consumer. Shop at thrift stores and surplus outlets.

      My wife and I followed this plan (we just listened to his radio show), and we became debt free (aside from our mortgage, which we keep for the tax breaks) in a few years (although we didn’t have a huge debt footprint – not like some poor slobs out there).

      Until you have been there, constantly paying one or more credit cards and other unsecured debt (and wondering when or if it will ever go away), you can’t imagine how good it feels to know you have no debt, and sufficient savings (especially “FU” money – ie, 6+ months of net income; so-called because at any time you can tell your boss “FU” and leave) – and no worries financially.

  • http://www.holytape.etsy.com Holytape

    “You see what we have here is what we in the building inspector business like to call a flaming biblical death trap. You see, metal wall studs in and of themselves aren’t flammable, and thus aren’t likely to spontaneously combust. However, bibles are made of paper and paper is flammable, even if said paper does contain the true words of the one true God. Not only that, but these bibles have been stacked near important load bearing beams, as the word of God is the metaphoric support of the church. Therefor, when, not if, they catch fire, the heat produced will weaken the beams and the probability of a total building failure is extremely high. Normally, we would remedy this situation by not placing unnecessary flammable material in the walls. But we, here at the Chattanooga Office of Public Safety, prayed, and well if the Omnipotent Creator of the Universe wants to make his house of worship a flaming coffin, who are we, as simple public servants with only the authority of man’s trivial building codes, to argue?”

  • The Other Weirdo

    So it’s a fire hazard on top of everything else?

  • Tor

    “When you come in here, you’re surrounded by the word of God,”

    Sounds more than a little new-agey woo woo to me.

  • http://friendlyatheist.com Richard Wade

    This is just Christian idolatry. The Catholics practice it a great deal, worshiping objects such as statues, artesian springs, or trees dripping aphid piss. But the Protestants do it too when they can tear themselves away from their cheese sandwich or cement stain Jesuses and they start considering a Bible as a magical object. They aren’t just worshipping the ideas, beings, and dogmas expressed in the book, but the object itself that somehow has supernatural influence on its surroundings, emitting a field of benevolence even when buried in a wall or a sidewalk.

    Talismans made with turkey bones, raccoon claws, raven feathers, and clam shells are by far the most effective.

  • Mitch

    A community center might be as effective, but maybe I’m hoping for too much.

  • Robster

    At last! A use for that crusty old hate filled book of stone age goat herder myths.

  • Michael

    A school teacher from Chicago thinks he has it all figured out,
    Have you figured out what You are going to say to JESUS CHRIST when He the KING of The Universe says to little you; “Depart from me for I know You not.”
    You see it doesn’t matter rather You are a covetous Money preacher like you are pointing to or an Ignorant A-theist as yourself, You will still stand before a Holy Righteous GOD and be Judged for Rejecting His only Begotten SON.
    HE that hath the Son hath, He that believeth not the Son hath not Life but the Wrath of God Abideth on him.

    • C.L. Honeycutt

      A random, grammatically lacking yahoo online thinks he has the secrets of the universe figured out. Shocker.

    • islandbrewer

      It didn’t work! We’re still hellbound! I think you need to “kwoat moat bibul”!

  • http://eternalbookshelf.wordpress.com/ Ani J. Sharmin

    Right… No neutral venue where Christians can gather.

    Except for country music concerts, Congress, and all of Alabama.

    This made me smile.
    My first reaction when I’d read just the first part of this post was that this actually sounded pretty cool, kind of interesting from an artistic or symbolic point of view. But this millionaire wealth seminar sounds odd, and we don’t know what kind of content they’re teaching in some of the other classes.

  • Agni Ashwin

    I doubt they’ve put Catholic Bibles in there.

  • mca

    I agree that this kind of thing is, well, obnoxious and over the top. However, your glib line about country music concerts, Congress, and all of Alabama is equally obnoxious.
    It also does great damage to your cause. This kind of insulting condescension goes a long way towards explaining why the case for atheism/agnosticism/skepticism doesn’t find a larger audience. People won’t give the ideas a fair hearing, in part, because you push them away with this kind of language.
    Non-theism has to stop being about being against religion, and it has to stop taking pleasure in mocking believers. You must offer people a positive message that enriches people’s lives in the way that religion enriches the lives of many people.
    Hemant, I’ve enjoyed reading your blog for some time. But, as a person who cares about ideas (and who happens to be a native of Chattanooga) , I took personal offense at your obnoxious, elitist disrespect for people who happen not to live in one of your precious urban, northern enclaves of “enlightenment.” Thanks for making it harder for those of us who live in places where conservative religious values are powerful facts of life.

  • fsda

    “Who can over estimate the progress of the world if all the money wasted in superstition could be used to enlighten, elevate and civilize mankind?”
    ― Robert G. Ingersoll, Some Mistakes of Moses