What sorts of arguments can substance dualists offer? What sorts of arguments would indicate that mind can exist independently of a physical basis? There is overwhelming evidence of the extremely sensitive dependence of every aspect of the mental on a physical basis, the brain in particular. The books of the late, great Oliver Sacks recount many cases, some amusing, some inspiring, and some tragic, showing that the most intimate and defining aspects of personality as well as the most basic… Read more

WHERE WE ARE AT In Part 1 through Part 8, I argued that the last ten of Peter Kreefts twenty arguments for God in Chapter 3 of his book Handbook of Christian Apologetics (hereafter: HCA) are all bad arguments and fail to provide us with any good reason to believe that God exists. In Part 9 through Part 20,  I examined the first five arguments in Kreeft’s case for God, arguments which he appears to think are the best and strongest… Read more

  THE DYNAMIC PROBABILITY OBJECTION The dynamic probability objection to my reasoning about the resurrection is based on the general logic of Richard Swinburne’s case for the resurrection.  In his book The Existence of God,  Swinburne argues that various inductive arguments for God form a cumulative case that makes the existence of God “more probable than not.” (Existence of God, 2nd ed., p.342).  In Swinburne’s book The Resurrection of God Incarnate, he begins with the assumption that the existence of God… Read more

THE NON-STANDARD RESURRECTION OBJECTION In this post I will state one objection to the logic of my thinking about the probability of the resurrection. I will also discuss and respond to this objection.  In the next post I will state a second objection to the logic of my thinking about the probability of the resurrection.  The second objection is based on the logic of Richard Swinburne’s thinking about the probability of the resurrection. Some of the beliefs or claims that… Read more

INTRODUCTION In this post I will spell out the basic logic of my current thinking about the probability of the resurrection. First, I give an example of a probability tree diagram and calculation where the events are independent of each other (coin tosses).  Next, I give an example of a probability tree diagram and calculation where the events are NOT independent (card draws).  Third, I present a probability tree diagram and calculation for the claim that God raised Jesus from… Read more

SKEPTICAL CLAIMS ABOUT SUPERNATURAL BELIEFS Two points from my List of Key Points about the resurrection relate directly to skepticism about the supernatural: 1. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural beings exist. 2. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural events occur. There are two more related points that should be added to the above two points: 21. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural powers exist. 22. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural forces exist. One form of skepticism about (1) and (2) concerns the question of the TRUTH… Read more

IMPROBABILITY Some Christians believe that it is certain that God raised Jesus from the dead; other Christians believe that it is very probable but not certain that God raised Jesus from the dead.  Some people believe that it is probable but not very probable that God raised Jesus from the dead. Some skeptics believe that it is certain that the claim God raised Jesus from the dead is FALSE, but other skeptics believe that it is very improbable that God raised Jesus from the… Read more

SKEPTICISM Skepticism is the denial of knowledge.  Universal skepticism denies the possibility of any kind of knowledge, or the actual existence of any kind of knowledge.  Qualified forms of skepticism deny the possibility of knowledge in particular areas, or the actual existence of knowledge in particular areas, such as religious knowledge or knowledge of the future. Knowledge is traditionally understood to be Justified True Belief, because one can have a true belief by accident or luck, but such true beliefs… Read more

SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE RESURRECTION 1. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural beings exist. 2. Nobody KNOWS that supernatural events occur. 3. Nobody KNOWS that God exists. 4. Nobody KNOWS that miracles occur. 5. Nobody KNOWS that Jesus existed. 6. Nobody KNOWS that Jesus died on the cross. 7. Nobody KNOWS that Jesus was alive on Easter morning. 8. Nobody KNOWS that Jesus rose from the dead. 9. Nobody KNOWS that God raised Jesus from the dead.   IMPROBABILITY OF THE RESURRECTION 10…. Read more

THE INITIAL INFERENCE IN ARGUMENT #4 In Part 19,  I argued that the initial inference or sub-argument in Argument #4 (the Argument from Degrees of Perfection) of Peter Kreeft’s case for God is very unclear, and that based on my best guess at what the premises of that sub-argument mean, one premise begs the question at issue by assuming that God exists, and another premise is too vague to be useful in a proof of the existence of God.  So,… Read more

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