Forthcoming in Philosophia: Philosophical Quarterly of Israel. Pre-publication copy available here.
Keywords: free will defense; moral evil; natural evil; natural lottery; problem of evil; soulmaking defense
Abstract. In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential (not logical or incompatibility) problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making defense, are not adequate responses in the face of this particular evil, or so I argue.