25 Most Influential People in the Birth of Modern Paganism (American Wing)

Who doesn’t love a good list and a short history lesson at the same time? Modern Paganism has been influenced by countless people over the past 200 years, but only twenty-five of them (give or take) made my list. Today’s installment looks at Ten Americans (sorry Canada) who have made (and in most cases continue to make) significant contributions to the development and practice of Modern Paganism. If you missed the previous “European Wing” installment please catch up! Part three features my “Top 5” contributors, in order of importance, instead of this cop out alphabetical listing thing I’ve been doing for numbers six through twenty.

Coming up with a list of American contributors was a bit more difficult than the European installment. Most American contributors are very “second generation,” it’s a completely different feel and a very different type of list.

The brief “Why they are on this list” parts are not meant to be exhaustive, it’s just a brief thumbnail listing a few accomplishments and reasons for inclusion. Opinions are strictly my own, though you are certainly welcome to share some. This list has a very Wiccan slant, but since Wicca is the largest Pagan denomination that’s probably to be expected.

I desperately wanted to come up with a catchy title for this series, but was unable to. What you got was a descriptive title instead. Without the 25 people listed in this series I think Paganism would look radically different, or perhaps exist in a much more limited way. The people on my list were pioneers and paved the way for sites like this to exist today.


Ask Me Again in Fifteen Years:
Teo Bishop
T. Thorn Coyle
Orion Foxwood
Patrick McCollum
Diana Paxson
Christopher Penczak

Name I Most Wanted to Put on this List But Couldn’t Justify:
Jack Parsons

First One Out, or Number Eleven:
Marion Zimmer Bradley

Please remember, this is one part of a three part series. If you don’t see a favorite there may very well be a reason for that.

Who is she?: Margot Adler (1946-present), Journalist, High Priestess, and author of Drawing Down the Moon.

Why she’s on this list: The easy answer to why is that she wrote Drawing Down the Moon, one of the most influential books about Paganism ever. What made DDtM so unique was that it wasn’t simply a “how to” book, it was an overview of North American Paganism, and the first look at the origins of Modern Paganism and Witchcraft. While DDtM is a bit dated in 2013 (first published in 1979, though updated every few years), time has neither diminished its importance or influence. Adler remains an active participant in the Pagan Community, speaking at public events and continuing to write, all while still writing and reporting for National Public Radio. (Every time Adler is on All Things Considered I usually stop whatever it is I’m doing and start pointing wildly at the radio.)

Victor and Cora Anderson (Victor 1917-2001, Cora 1915-2008), founders of the Feri Tradition.

Why they are on this list: It sometimes seems like every important Craft tradition arose in Great Britain, but that’s not the case. The Anderson’s Feri Tradition is an American Witchcraft tradition, fueled by Hawaiian Magick, sensuality, and the poetry of Victor Anderson. While Feri is not as widespread as its British cousins, it’s had a huge influence on Modern Paganism as a whole due to the prominence of many of its initiates (people such as Gwydion Pendderwen, Starhawk, and T. Thorn Coyle). The Feri Tradition was also a huge influence on Reclaiming, and some of its ideas and practices can be seen in multiple Pagan books.

Who is he: Isaac Bonewits (1949-2010), author, Druid, and Pagan scholar.

Why he’s on this list: Have you ever heard the term “Neo-Pagan?” That’s Issac, but he’s influence on Modern Paganism transcends that one little term. He was the first (and only) person to receieve a Bachelor’s Degree in Magic from the University of California at Berkeley, an experience which lead to the writing of Real Magic: An Introductory Treatise on the Basic Principles of Yellow Magic, one of the early essentials of American Paganism and magick. Bonewits was an initiated Witch and a member of the Reformed Druids of North America before going on to start Ár nDraíocht Féin (probably better known as ADF, or A Druid Fellowship), currently the largest Pagan Druid group in North America. Bonewits was a tireless teacher, writer, and sometimes musician, whose influence on Paganism was as large as his personality. You are missed my friend.

Who is he?: Scott Cunningham (1956-1993), Wiccan author, most famous for Wicca: A Guide For the Solitary Practitioner.

Why he’s on this list: I think I’m only beginning to understand just how revolutionary it was to title Cunningham’s book on Solitary Practice Wicca back in 1988. Up until then the word Wicca was more a whisper than a book genre. Sure there were books on Witchcraft, but Wicca? Cunningham’s book opened the floodgates and began a dialogue that is still ongoing. If that weren’t enough Cunningham’s “Encyclopedia Series” are standard reference works for using oils, herbs, incenses, metals, rocks, and crystals. Solitary Practitioner has become one of the best selling “how to” books of all time, and continues to be highly influential. In 2009 Llewellyn released Cunningham’s Book of Shadows, showing just how popular Cunningham remains nearly twenty years after his death.

Who is she?: Selena Fox (1949-present), founder of Circle Sanctuary, Pagan teacher and activist.

Why she’s on this list: If all Selena had ever done was simply set up the first Pagan Cemetery in the United States and win the lobbying effort to include the pentagram on the list of religious symbols allowed on military headstones she’d have made this list, but those are only two of her many accomplishments. Selena is the founder of Circle Sanctuary, a non-profit church and nature preserve run entirely by Pagans. She’s the force behind Circle’s magazine, one of the oldest and most enduring Pagan magazines in the United States, and is the editor of the Circle Guide to Pagan Resources, until the age of the internet an essential networking tool. She’s also a popular teacher and lecturer, and has participated in the World Parliament of Religions. She’s also one of the most warm and energetic people I’ve ever met.

Who is he?: Charles Godfrey Leland (1824-1903), Folklorist and author of Aradia.

Why he’s on this list: Leland was an American born folklorist best known in Pagan circles for the books Aradia: Or the Gospel of the Witches and Etruscan Roman Remains, books that are still studied and agonized over 100 years after their initial publication. Aradia is one of the most influential texts in the history of Modern Pagandom, and while the Witchcraft in Aradia is a bit more mean-spirited than modern varieties, there are still many similarities. Much of the material in Aradia has been adapted and re-worked over the years, extending its influence even further. The Charge of the Goddess is found in Aradia, with the more famous Doreen Valiente version using much of the language originally translated from the Italian by Leland. There are many arguments about the historical veracity of Aradia, but no doubts about its influence.

Who is she?: Silver Ravenwolf (1956-present), author of To Ride A Silver Broomstick and Teen Witch.

Why she’s on this list: Silver has become a polarizing figure in many Pagan circles, but to an entire generation she was an early entry point into Paganism and Witchcraft. To Ride a Silver Broomstick was an timely and influential work, contributing to and benefitting from the 90′s Pagan boom. I’m not a huge fan of Teen Witch either, but it began a new genre in Pagan books, and introduced a lot of young people to Modern Paganism. Despite the criticisms leveled at books such as Teen Witch there can be no denying that Ravenwolf is a tremendously talented writer, She’s also been one of the most popular Pagan authors in the world for two decades now. Love it or hate it, Silver’s version of Witchcraft has left a lasting mark.

Who is he: Carl Weschcke (1930-present), President of Llewellyn Worldwide.

Why he’s on this list: Llewellyn is responsible for publishing Lady Sheba’s Book of Shadows, Cunningham’s Wicca, and Ravenwolf’s Broomstick, all books that forever changed Modern Paganism, and none of that happens without Weschke’s purchase of Llewellyn Publications back in 1961. Llewellyn has been the largest and most influential New Age/Pagan publishing house for the last couple of decades, and continues to release important and popular work. There are few people within Pagandom who have not read a Llewellyn book and I’ve seen few Pagan libraries without one of those little crescent moon symbols somewhere on the shelf. In addition to Pagan-focused materials, Llewellyn is also a leader in publishing books on astrology, the super-natural, and a wide range of New Age disciplines. Llewellyn brought competent editing and marketing to Pagan publishing, changing it forever.

Who is he?: Oberon Zell-Ravenheart (1942-present), founder of the Church of All Worlds and Green Egg Magazine.

Why he’s on this list: Oberon was one of the first individuals to realize that Witches, Wiccans, Druids, and Heathens were all a part of the same Pagan tree, indeed Oberon was one of the first people to use the word “Pagan” to describe our very diverse spiritual movement. He did a lot that uniting in the pages of The Green Egg, one of the most influential Pagan magazines in the States. (Forget the articles, my favorite part of the magazine was always the letter column!) Green Egg was also the mouthpiece for The Church of All Worlds, one of the first (if not the first) legally recognized Pagan churches, and based in part on the book Stranger in a Strange Land by sci-fi scribe Robert Heinlein. In addition to founding a church and publishing a magazine Oberon was one of the first people to propose the Gaia Theory. He’s also written several books and started an online magic academy, The Grey School of Wizardry. It’s impossible to talk about Oberon without mentioning his wife Morning Glory who popularized the term and concept polyamory.

Who are they?: Internet pioneers Wren Walker and Jason Pitzl-Waters.

Why they are on this list: There’s no doubt that internet has changed Paganism. I can remember a time in the 1990′s when most of us were still connecting through letters, magazine columns, and bulletin boards at the local New Age Bookstore. Today we connect and share information in seconds instead of weeks, and internet personalities have become as important as traditional writers. One of the first real changes in how Pagans connect with one another occurred with the founding of The Witches Voice by Wren Walker and Fritz Jung back in 1997. The Witches Voice was one-stop shopping to find other Pagans, festivals, and supply stores. There was nothing like it before, and nothing like it since. It was (and remains) an invaluable source for information and networking.

I have a feeling that Jason is not going to like being on this list, but The Wild Hunt has had a huge influence on Paganism over the nine years its of existence. Until The Wild Hunt, Pagan news was sporadic and spread over a wide range sites. Jason and his crew of writers write about Paganism as insiders as well as journalists. There’s no sensationalism, no misplaced outrage, just intelligent commentary about issues and ideas that effect Pagandom on a global scale. Jason and Wren weren’t the first or only people to bring us into the new media age, but they are among the most influential.

Next: My Top 5

About Jason Mankey

Jason Mankey has been involved with Paganism for the last twenty years, and has spent the last ten of those years as a speaker, writer, and High Priest. Jason can often be found lecturing on the Pagan Festival circuit, so you might just bump into him. When not reading and researching Pagan history he likes to crank up the Led Zeppelin, do rituals in honor of Jim Morrison (of The Doors), and sing numerous praises to Pan, Dionysus, and Aphrodite. He lives in Sunnyvale CA with his wife Ari and two hyper-kinetic cats.

  • Mattheworbit

    Thank you so much for this well-researched, interesting and informative list. I’m particularly glad to see Ravenwolf’s inclusion, because, regardless of tradition, she has been a great positive influence on many (particularly, empowering those who may not have found support or the Craft any other way). And same goes for Cunningham – that man had heart. I only wish Marion Weinstein was more prolific – I adore her work, though it is not always strictly traditional or even pagan. I look forward to your updated list in 15 years ;) and do hope that Christopher Penczak makes that list!

  • John M Hansen

    How about Ed Fitch, who promoted the Crystal Well and the pagan way? He stated in the late 50′s – Then there is Ray Buckland, who actually brought Gardnerian witchcraft to America. Donna cunningham was another one early in promoting witchcraft, Joseph Wilson was another. I think you missed a lot of the early ones. .

    • http://twitter.com/Panmankey Jason Mankey

      Ray Buckland is on the European List. :) Wilson is mentioned in the Robert Cochrane entry.

      Ed Fitch was one of the hardest people to leave off of this list. “Crystal Well” is certainly influential.

      • http://www.facebook.com/Anna.Greenflame Anna Greenflame

        It was not just about the Crystal Well. Ed Fitch’s work basically opened up the whole concept of “outer court” and doing Wicca in a wholly different way than the BTW Book of Shadows.

        Frankly, I think you should talk to Ed, and also talk to Ann and Dave Finnin, who were at the forefront of a vibrant and influential Pagan scene in Southern California in the 1970s and 1980s.

        I have a concern than some on the “future?” list are really not all that productive. For example, Peter Paddon is amazingly productive, and he has brought Traditional Witchcraft well into the consciousness of many Pagans. What has Teo Bishop really done, other than be a semi-celeb musically and writing a blog? I mean, really?

        • http://twitter.com/Panmankey Jason Mankey

          No offense to Peter, but I’m going to guess that Teo has more readers in a given year. The internet is powerful and it’s not a joke, and ten years from now “published book” will matter a lot less than it seems to now. (Though that’s probably not good for the long term financial viability of many teachers, but that’s a completely separate issue.) I sense your dismissiveness of blogs, and you are right, they don’t have a whole lot of reach, yet, but that’s changing as the way we process and consume information is changing.

          Remember this is all just one dumb guy’s opinion. Anyone can set up a wordpress account and come up with their own list. :)

          • http://www.facebook.com/Anna.Greenflame Anna Greenflame

            It certainly *does* concern me that some person with a blog would end up being much more influential than a master occultist with multiple books (and ebooks, and a blog, and videos, and other pioneering electronic work — talk to Peter and find out). I am not dismissive of blogs per se, but certainly we should be talking about what creates influence and how a blogger with little else to his credit, other than a seemingly nice personality and some semi-celebrity in another field, got to be regarded as so influential. That’s an important story in itself. I mean, he seems like a nice enough man, but compared to Peter, or Ian Corrigan (for example) or Raven Digitalis or any number of other contemporary practitioners/leaders/authors, I am just not sure what his substance is.

          • http://www.facebook.com/Anna.Greenflame Anna Greenflame

            When you create lists like this, you are taking on a big responsibility in molding and shaping opinion and perception of importance. These types of lists themselves can have influence that lasts years or longer. That’s a big deal, and needs to be talked about itself.

  • 12StepWitch

    Great series! Happy to see Cunningham on there, his gentle and nature-based approach to witchcraft was my introduction to this world almost 20 years ago.

  • PhaedraHPS

    Thanks for remembering Isaac. It’s always nice to know his work lives on. However, he himself lived longer; he died in 2010, not 2007.

    • http://twitter.com/Panmankey Jason Mankey

      Sorry about the mistake Phaedra.

      • PhaedraHPS

        ‘s ok :-) Thanks for correcting it.

  • Oberon Zell

    Fabulous work, Jason! I’ve filed this in my “Pagan History,” as well as my notes for “Wizards of the World.”

    A few corrections, however:

    It was I, and not Isaac, who first claimed and promoted the term “Neo-Pagan” in the present context (though we later found out to our great chagrin that it had been applied to the Nazis in the ’40s). This was in 1968, when I found it necessary to distinguish modern Pagans from indigenous and Classical Pagans such as Hindus, Shintos, Native Americans, ancient Greek, Egyptian, etc.

    Isaac picked up the term from me, and then added “Archaeo-Pagan” and “Meso-Pagan” to delineate further distinctions. Later he dropped the hyphen, spelling it “Neopaganism.”

    I claimed the label of “Pagan” as a self-identification in Sept. of 1967, when CAW first went public. I know of no earlier claimant to that self-identification. Then when I started Green Egg at Ostara of 1968, I promoted the term to all the other groups I encountered who seemed to me appropriate: Feraferia, Isaac’s Druids, Church of the Eternal Source, Witches, etc. Fred Adams of Feraferia and I formed the first Neo-Pagan alliance: the Council of Themis, in 1968.

    And Morning Glory was not just a “popularizer” of the terms “poyamorous” and “polyamory.” She coined both of these words in 1990–the first in her landmark article, “Bouquet of Lovers,” published in Green Egg #89 (Beltane 1990); and the second in the extensive “Glossary of Poly Terms” she and I put together for the PEPcon at the U. of Calif. in Berkeley the following Labor Day. (PEP=”Polyfidelity Educational Pursuits”)


    • Lēoht Sceadusawol

      It could be argued that, by using ‘Pagan’ is such an encompassing way that your legacy is a community that can’t self define without argument.

  • http://twitter.com/SableAradia Sable Aradia

    Thank you very much, Jason! An excellent article! I will be sharing it to my personal blog, along with the others in the series.

  • http://www.facebook.com/stacy.mathias Stacy Mathias

    I am happy to see Cunningham and Isaac on the list as well as some of the others, however I was sad that Laurie Cabot had been snubbed

    • http://www.facebook.com/valerie.voigt Valerie Voigt

      Stacy, I don’t think Laurie was “snubbed”–I mean, Lady Sheba, Lady Sintana, Lady Galadriel, and Alison Harlow also aren’t on the list, in spite of having had plenty of influence (much more than most people know). Certainly, I don’t think anyone would deny that Laurie has been very influential, particularly in Massachussetts and environs–but all of the people Jason has listed here have had enormous influence both nationally and internationally.

      I do suspect that Laurie’s contributions are coming to be both more widespread and more widely-recognized as more people read her books (particularly “Power of the Witch.”

      • http://www.facebook.com/brian.m.shea Brian Michael Shea

        I was wondering about Laurie Cabot too. In fact I knew of witches, before becoming interested in and involved in Wicca and witchcraft, from first being familiar with Sybil Leek(who Jason mentioned in his European list) and Laurie Cabot. I knew of them way before Starhawk or Margot Adler(or any other for that matter). Interestingly enough, the first person I ever met who was ‘into’ Wicca, witchcraft, and occultism, had never heard of either Sybil Leek or Laurie Cabot, but introduced me to Starhawk and Margot Adler(and Marion Zimmer Bradley).

  • http://twitter.com/SableAradia Sable Aradia

    Jason, I’m writing a “rebuttal” article of a sort for my new column at Witches & Pagans Magazine’s website about the top most influential Canadians in Paganism . . . may I borrow your “Top 25″ graphic? I’ll be happy to post the link here if you like too.

    • http://twitter.com/Panmankey Jason Mankey

      A rebuttal? We aren’t arguing, though I’d love to see a list of influential Canadian Pagans. Feel free to use my graphic as long as you link back to me. :)

      • http://twitter.com/SableAradia Sable Aradia

        LOL! Okay, thank you. Didn’t know what else to call it; I am adding my two cents. :) All righty, done and done! Actually, I referred to your articles directly in the text of mine and linked back. Thanks again! You’ll see it later today; I’ll post the link. :)

      • http://twitter.com/SableAradia Sable Aradia

        Here it is, Jason, and thank you for sharing! (Please visualize me with a wry grin and a tongue-in-cheek smile; tone is hard to emulate in print and I realize upon reading it that it could be taken as criticism. It’s not, I mean it in all good humour and fun!) http://witchesandpagans.com/Pagan-Culture-Blogs/25-most-influential-people-in-the-birth-of-modern-paganism-canadian-wing.html.

    • Kaduceus

      SA – you’ve got a pretty broad definition of Canadian. Muntean became a Canadian during the Vietnam War.

  • Lady Maedbh

    I would think Starhawk, Macha Night Mare, Ray Buckland, Z Budepest and Laurie Cabot should definitely be in this list. With out them Paganism would not be as diverse and political as it is today. The first two books I ever read on Paganism were “Drawing Down the Moon” and “Spiral Dance”. These books changed my life.

    • Lēoht Sceadusawol

      I can’t deny their influence, but I can’t say that politicising a religious movement (or, in this case, movements) is a good thing.

    • JasonMankey

      This list is in three parts. Starhawk is number three overall, out of all 25 or so people listed. Ray Buckland is on the European list.

  • http://www.facebook.com/brian.m.shea Brian Michael Shea

    I really like this series, great lists! I’m very glad you included Scott Cunningham. Even though I never met him when he was alive, through is books and influence on me, I can say I truly miss him(he did seem like he was a really nice guy). His Guide To Incenses, Oils, and Brews was one of the first occult books I ever bought. I still have it, that and Earth Power.

    I was actually glad you included Silver Ravenwolf, as controversial (and oft maligned) as she is, and Carl Weschke.
    I was wondering if you would ever consider writing another list including the ones who didn’t make it but you mentioned, and the ‘newcomers’ and why they might be influencial eventually(I’m personally a fan of Orion Foxwood and Christopher Penczack)
    And, like others who commented, wonder what you think of Laurie Cabot.

    • JasonMankey

      I do plan to write a few more lists, but want some space from this one before doing so. I don’t know want to end up being known as “the list guy” or “the guy who writes those lists that piss everybody off.” But yeah, I’ll be writing about a few more folks in the upcoming months.

  • http://www.facebook.com/GreenSpiralDragon Jamie Clemons

    Buckland should be on the American list. He was only very briefly in the european scene.

  • http://www.facebook.com/GreenSpiralDragon Jamie Clemons

    What about Starhawk? Her book Spiral Dance had a huge influence here.

    • JasonMankey

      I hope you noticed the blurb in the first paragraph:
      “If you missed the previous “European Wing” installment please catch up! Part three features my “Top 5”
      contributors, in order of importance, instead of this cop out
      alphabetical listing thing I’ve been doing for numbers six through

      Buckland=European Wing
      Starhawk=Top 5