The Fistfight Fallacy: rape culture’s ahistorical premise

Stick figure of a caveman, from wikimedia commons.

Trigger warning: I’m fighting back against a rape apologist’s claim, and some of this material may be triggering.

Inevitably, when you write about patriarchy, you get “schooled” by some asshat who informs you that society itself is founded on the threat of rape. That men are bigger and stronger and have always been able to coerce women into sex, and that fact is the simple biological root of patriarchy that cannot be expunged by a bunch of PC feminist mumbo-jumbo. It’s an argument that persists because I think a lot of people, even feminists, find it depressingly believable. But there are a number of flaws to this argument, and I want to bring up a few of them.

Flaw #1: The assumption that society is reducible to The Average Man and The Average Woman.

This is problem for multiple reasons. First of all, the fact that human beings exist in social groups. Human survival has depended on our ability to form extra-familial groups and defend ourselves against other groups. The codes of behavior that govern interpersonal relationships within groups generally involve not abusing one another. Rape is not conducive to social cohesion. If a woman is raped, chances are she has friends and family who are capable of beating up and killing the rapist. The idea that prehistoric men could rape women without consequence is absurd. No matter how strong an individual man is, he can always be overpowered by greater numbers.

For that matter, there are plenty of individual women who are bigger and stronger than plenty of individual men.

Flaw #2: The assumption that rape is about sex and procreation.

Rape is not an efficient way to father children. If you have a consensual sex partner, and you live in a group with that partner (or more than one, if you will), you’re more likely to father more children than men who rape and risk being shunned. Which is what matters in this imagined evolutionary world we’re talking about.

And now that I’m done appealing to the raw numbers that assume the worst of human nature, let me point out that most human beings eschew violence unless it’s necessary. There’s no reason for violence to be necessary for procreation.

Most men now are not rapists. To assume that most men in the past were rapists is to project a rapist’s mentality onto the past. As for the argument that society has “wussified” men who would otherwise be rapists, I’d like to point out that you’re describing social construction and conditioning. Which is exactly what you’re trying to debunk by arguing that biology makes rape and patriarchy inevitable.

Rape is a violent crime, and it’s about domination, not sex.

Flaw #3: The assumption that physical strength is the only meaningful threat.

The reason I call this argument the “fistfight fallacy” is that it assumes a direct physical confrontation is the only form of power in human society, which is laughably simplistic. “Men have always been able to coerce women into having sex because they’re bigger and stronger, therefore patriarchy is natural” can be rebutted with a number of counter-claims:

  • Women have always been able to poison men, therefore matriarchy is natural.
  • Women have always been able to stab or club men to death while they are asleep, therefore matriarchy is natural.
  • Women have always been able to make ropes and strangle men, therefore matriarchy is natural.
  • Women have always been able to persuade men to kill other men, therefore matriarchy is natural.
  • Women have always been able to kill the offspring of rapists, therefore rape is a bad evolutionary strategy.
  • Women’s families and friends have always been able to kill rapists, therefore rape is dangerous.
Flaw #4: The assumption that physical strength orders society.
Human societies have more dimensions than chest-beating contests of strength. It’s possible to imagine some foundational moment where a group of humans got together and decided to obey the biggest guy because he was big, but more often, societies have been controlled by other factors:
Who is the best manipulator? Who is the smartest? Who is the most attractive? Who has the most resources? Who has the best tools? Who has the most valuable knowledge? Who has the most loyal family members? Who has the fewest reservations about slyly killing off the competition?
There are lots of reasons people who aren’t the strongest get into power. And even if the strongest person does win a contest, there’s no guarantee that he or she will have the smarts to hold onto power afterwards.

Flaw #5: The assumption that women are sexually passive and must be coerced into sex.

This is a Victorian cultural premise projected onto prehistoric societies. This idea has a history, and the reverse was believed to be true in the Middle Ages. There has not been a continuous social consensus that males are more sexually ambitious than females since prehistoric times. It is a socially constructed idea that we inherited from the 19th century. Not even that old.

Flaw #6: The assumption that human beings are all motivated by simple evolutionary arithmetic.

Human beings have survived because we are good at organizing, banding together and communicating. We don’t have particularly threatening physical characteristics. We survive because, more or less, we get along with each other. At least, we try to focus the violence of our societies outwards (in wars with other groups) rather than inwards, because that’s how we avoid killing each other in a massive apocalyptic bloodbath. With social behavior comes a host of potential motivations: to be liked, to be popular, to be powerful, to be included, to be protected. Human societies, because they are bigger than simple family packs, are necessarily more complex. Our behaviors are not all determined by what will result in the most children. This is to say nothing of the immense complexity of human sexual attraction and behavior.

Moreover, all societies have histories of a sort, oral or written. That contributes to the complexity of our motivations: we want to be remembered well, or avenge a wrong, or improve upon the past. The best known men in history weren’t the most prolific fathers; they had influence over people who weren’t directly related to them.

It’s easy to justify patriarchy if you reduce people to the most simplistic motivations and impute to them instincts that have long been considered criminal. Despite the fact that rape has often been wrongly viewed as an injury to a woman’s father rather than to herself, it has nonetheless been considered a crime. There are enough potential pitfalls when you ascribe the norms of today to the past, especially the prehistoric past, but to ascribe aberrant, criminal, antisocial behavior of today to the past and call it a norm requires a special kind of mental gymnastics. You might as well say that society is founded on murder and theft – which, by the way, I don’t see a lot of people doing.

Patriarchy is not a biological imperative, it’s a learned ideology. Rape is also a culturally conditioned form of violence.

I don’t plan to engage with this absurd argument in the future, but I address it now because it has an unfortunate currency on the internet. Let’s not forget, though, that rape is a tool of domination and is a violent gender-based hate crime, not a tool for procreation. It is a weapon used against LGBTQ people, not just cis women, to intimidate them. The argument I’ve fought back against here is ultimately a tool used by rape apologists who want to undermine efforts to end rape by naturalizing it. That’s why I don’t plan to talk about it again. Rape apology doesn’t deserve the space. However, I want this post to exist so that the people who are tempted to believe such tripe have a few extra reasons not to buy it.

  • Hibernia86

    You are correct that rape was never the main form of reproduction, but you are wrong to say that rape is about power rather than sex. Rape is about giving the man another avenue to have children with a woman who normally wouldn’t agree to have sex with him. Yes, rape was dangerous because the male relatives of the woman could kill the man, but when he could get away with it, it increased the number of children he had and thus his evolutionary success. After Todd Akins comment about the woman’s body shutting down rape there were many articles run that said that rape was more likely to result in pregnancy (due to lack of birth control). Rape is common in many animal species from Orangutans to ducks to insects. This doesn’t mean that we should allow rape but it does mean that rape is an evolutionary strategy. Remember nature is red in tooth and claw. We don’t need to be violent, but violence existed for an evolutionary reason.

    Also I don’t think we should use the term “rape culture” because rape is the fault of the rapist, not culture. The vast majority of people are against rape.

    • Sierra

      I don’t see that there’s any logic behind the idea that men who rape father more children than men who have consensual sex, unless maybe you’re assuming that rapists are the only men who are non-monogamous, which would be wrong.

      “Nature is red in tooth and claw” is a philosophical argument, not a proven scientific fact. It also chooses to ignore instances of cooperation and social cohesion in nature. Violence among animals is more often about obtaining food and self-defense (or gaining power over a whole group) than some impulse to be violent for its own sake. There’s no necessary reason that reproduction should be violent, or that violence makes reproduction more effective.

    • chervil

      “Rape is common in many animal species from Orangutans to ducks to insects. This doesn’t mean that we should allow rape but it does mean that rape is an evolutionary strategy.”

      Um, animals have been seeing mating with dead animals of their own species, even over a period of hours. Are you sure the evolutionary strategy argument is you want to go with?

    • Ms_Morlowe

      “Evolutionary success” is not about making sure any random fetus has your DNA, but rather that the child with your genetic material survives and parents kids of their own, etc. It’s a much longer process than just the actual conception. Kids in the way back when were much more likely to survive with multiple people caring for them: and that’s ensured by being in a relationship, giving a child a much wider social support structure. Also, getting pregnant is often takes more than just one time, so being in a relationship with the person you want to procreate with is more productive.

      Also, ‘rape culture’ refers to the wider societal values that allow rapists to get away with their crimes: through sexualisation of women and girls, victim blaming, and promoting ideas of ‘gray rape’. While, yes, the majority of people are against Rape, that doesn’t prevent the ‘but’ that often comes after: “Rape is wrong, but she shouldn’t have been drinking/he shouldn’t have been walking alone/ zie should have fought back”.

    • Amethyst Marie

      Yeah, that makes sense, because men never rape men.

  • http://www.theupsidedownworld.com Rebecca Trotter

    When I was in college I was raped twice in one year. In the aftermath, I was bothered that although I had clearly said no and tried to stop the person, at some point, I just waited for them to be done rather than yelling and screaming or trying to beat the bejeezus out of them. I knew that not putting up more of a fight didn’t mean it was my fault or it wasn’t rape, but I did have to ask myself why I froze up. And what I realized was that having been raised in a patriarchal environment, combined with physical abuse posing as discipline, in my heart of hearts, I didn’t believe that my body was my own. I didn’t believe that I had a right to protect myself. Patriarchy causes rape. It makes girls vulnerable and some boys feel entitled. It is evil and ungodly. I pray daily for its rapid demise from the face of the earth.

    • Sierra

      Thank you for sharing. I absolutely hear and believe what you are saying about patriarchal indoctrination shutting down your ability to defend yourself. I, too, hope we live to see the day that patriarchy is publicly condemned and eradicated.

  • Susan Burns

    I agree with Rebecca.

  • Monala

    Excellent article!

  • http://followingontoknow.blogspot.com Just Me

    Very well written! I generally won’t take the time to respond to people who are stupid enough to believe that stuff, because I figure they’re too stupid to understand even a basic argument. Nevertheless, it’s nice to see it laid out for the encouragement of the intelligent.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/John-Taylor/100001609503981 John Taylor

    It is unfortunate that the above well written article is necessary. We should continue to spread this message.

    There is one point beyond the scope of the points Sierra made.
    The “Rape Culture” is no accident, and is part of a larger plan. It is a tool to demote and disadvantage women. When women are impoverished their society becomes impoverished with control (and money) residing in the hands of a favored few. We see this same pattern of marginalizing women, reducing education, shoving religiosity along with FEAR being tools that are used to control people used in civilization after civilization, country after country, and always with the same results.

    It is quite criminal, and quite effective, but knowledge is power.

    We can push for a society of equality and prosperity for all, not just for one sector.
    (by the way, to those who support the scam and think they will get into the top clique – if you are not a billionaire, don’t expect to get let in any time soon).

  • archaeometrist

    I wish you could have seen my eyes roll when I read this. The people who spout that sort of nonsense need to talk with anthropologists (especially archaeologists). Patriarchy is based on the myth of the “cave man”… the evidence is there (and more found as time goes by) that people lived in egalitarian societies without “Man the Hunter, Woman the gatherer/takes care of the kiddies” bull****. There ARE matriarchal cultures around the world (not just matrilineal and matrifocal) and some of them are quite old – and we can establish that the ideas inherent in patriarchy have been introduced in many areas… like parts of Europe. It’s not a natural thing.