Who Is Rob Bell?

This post is part of the Patheos Book Club. Check out the Book Club for more posts on this book, an interview with the author, and for responses from other bloggers and columnists.

I got a lot of Rob Bell this weekend. First, I read the New Yorker profile on him, then I dove into James Wellman’s book, Rob Bell and a New American ChristianityThe two intersected often, and sometime contradicted each other.

Before I proffer my analysis, let me remind you: I don’t know Rob Bell well. I’ve spoken to him twice — once in 2003ish, and once in 2011. Both were brief and passing conversations. I’ve never received an email from him; I don’t have his cell phone number. I am one degree of separation removed from him, being that I have several friends who know him quite well. I am generally sympathetic to his project, but as my reviews of Love Wins made clear, I also have problems with some of his conclusions (or lack thereof).

First, the New Yorker (the article is here, behind a pay wall):

Kelefa Sanneh (son of Yale missiologist Lamin Sanneh) has written a compelling piece on Bell. A narrative has developed around Rob — and he hasn’t done much to diminish it — that he’s always been a provocateur, always a progressive. Sanneh pored over Rob’s old sermons to paint a picture of a much more conservative preacher at the beginnings of Mars Hill:

In his early sermons, he combined emotional appeals with straightforward interpretations of Scripture. He did a series of “blood and guts” sermons, which explained sacrificial laws of Leviticus in gruesome detail. On the topic of sex, he warned dating couples against doing “things that only are proper within marriage.” And, in his eagerness to win new souls, he didn’t always avoiud threats. “Jesus is your only hope, and God cannot accept caual, passive worship of him,” Bell told the congregation. “You either are headed to Heaven or you’re headed to Hell. It’s just that simple.”

That last quote sounds almost Driscollian.

My point is this: Rob Bell has evolved. So have I. So, for that matter, has Mark Driscoll — Mark was not a Calvinist (at least not a strict one) when we all started palling around together in the mid-90s.

And that seems to be a storyline that is underappreciated by both Sanneh and Wellman. The question is, Does evangelical Christianity allow one of its leaders to theologically evolve? The answer seems to be NO.

There’s another telling paragraph toward the end of Sanneh’s piece:

From a certain evangelical perspective, Bell’s life can look like a cautionary tale: his desire to question the doctrine of Hell led to his departure from the church he built. And maybe, like many other theological liberals in recent decades, he will drift out of the Christian church altogether and become merely one more mildly spiritual Californian, content to find moments of grace and joy in his everyday life; certainly, that’s what many of his detractors expect. But it’s also possible that his new life will end up strengthening many of his old convictions. Before, he was a dissenter in evangelical West Michigan. Now he is a lifelong believer in secular Southern California. And, in that world, his faith may seem more distinctive — and more important — than his doubts.

This is another question to ponder: How much is Rob really a contrarian at heart? It’s something I considered as soon as I heard that Rob tells church planters to take communion more. The worship at Mars Hill under Rob was notoriously un-religious: 45 minutes of music, 30 minutes of teaching. That’s it. No Lord’s Prayer. Not so much as a benediction. Occasionally, the Lord’s Supper.

In the highly religious context of West Michigan, Rob spurned liturgy and religion. Now that he’s in SoCal, he’s promoting it. Is this a bait-and-switch, or a heartfelt conversion? Who’s to say?

This is a good segue to Wellman’s book, for he takes up both of these topics. Wellman writes about the unique religious climate of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Populated by persons of Dutch Reformed heritage — both ethnically and theologically — and dominated by Christian institutions like Zondervan and Baker publishers, Family Christian Stores, and Cornerstone University, Rob Bell stepped in to an often unquestioned theological system and opened Pandora’s Box. And he did it with charisma:

This is precisely what a charismatic principal does. He describes the dilemma, a system that depresses rather than releases thought and action, and then he offers plausible alternatives, ways of thinking of God as a source of energy that releases boundless forms of creative purpose in the world, announcing all the ways that a person might use these energies to express their human potential for growth, inquiry, and creativity. Most importantly, this leader acts as a proxy, showing effective ways that this message releases them with energy, love, and creative action in the world.

Talk to someone from Grand Rapids sometime. Many have told me that Mars Hill and Rob’s teaching served as a long overdue release valve in a highly pressurized theological environment. As a result, people flocked to hear his teaching.

But, again, evangelicalism has its limits. By year three at Mars Hill, the worshipping congregation was 10,000 strong. By the time Rob left, it was 3,500. In both the book and the article, that attrition is attributed to 1) allowing women preachers and elders; 2) Love Wins.

At the very end of Wellman’s book, he attacks the question that still hangs over Rob, in my mind at least. Wellman admits to pressing Rob repeatedly in interviews about what he is, an evangelical or a liberal.

I prodded and pushed him for a clear response. What emerged was his refusal to bite down on any one label. More interesting was his refusal to see himself as a leader of a movement.

The Big Question is this: How long can Rob Bell — or any of us — avoid labels and categories?

This isn’t a rhetorical question for me. I’ve maintained that I should be listed among Patheos’s evangelical bloggers, being that I teach at an evangelical seminary and affirm many of the traditional positions of evangelicalism.

Can Rob Bell — or you or I — be both “progressive” and “evangelical”?

  • http://emerginganabaptist.com Ryan Robinson

    I find labels to be helpful insofar as everybody involved in the discussion knows what the label means. They aren’t to judge or create walls of who is in and who is out, but they can be useful to facilitate conversation if you can summarize thoughts efficiently under one or a few labels. They can be dangerous and I sympathize with why Bell and many others don’t like being pinned down to them, but I ultimately am willing to embrace them – particularly those that do have a clear definition (i.e. not “evangelical” without more clarification).

  • https://www.facebook.com/ProgressiveEvangelical Facebook.com/ProgressiveEvangelical

    Progressive evangelicals certainly do exist, and Rob Bell is one of the leaders (whether he wants to be or not): https://www.facebook.com/ProgressiveEvangelical

    • http://tonyj.net Tony Jones

      Steve, a Facebook page does not a movement make. Good Lord, it only has 74 likes.

      Pretending to be a shark in the bath has 18 times that many.

      • jdens

        May be. But Jim Wallis has described himself as a progressive evangelical for a long time, and he has a lot more than 74 followers.

  • http://mjkimpan.com michael j. kimpan

    whether he – or others – is able to continue to avoid being ‘pinned down’ to any one label or not (and i suspect that intentional avoidance will continue, though i’m not uncomfortable with it), what i *don’t* think he’ll be able to do is refuse to see himself as a leader of a movement.

    when i went to the 2days with rob in laguna, it was evident that there is something happening in different corners of the world – and more than just a few corners are looking to people like rob (and you, and brian, et cetera) to lead them.

    whether it’s acknowledged by you all or not isn’t quite the point. the point is, it’s happening.

  • http://www.kellyjyoungblood.com Kelly J Youngblood

    I do wonder if anyone knows what certain labels even mean anymore; I know I sometimes get confused as to what people mean by what they say. And then what do you do with someone like me who has been a part of a variety of denominations and doesn’t claim any one of them as “the one” for me? I have learned a lot from many different denominations and people, and they can all be very different from each other. Other than “Christian”, I really do not know how to label myself. Despite not wanting to label myself though, I do appreciate it when others label themselves as it can be helpful to get a point of reference as to where that person is coming from and what he/she probably believes. On the downside, a label can negatively bring about prejudices and hinder discussion.

  • http://corydoiron.com Cory

    I moved to Grand Rapids about 1 year ago. I have never lived in a culture like this one. Most people have some sort of opinion about Jesus. It’s tough to see the relevance of church here when most people have made up their minds about where they stand. I commend Rob for his willingness to push people out if their positions. I hope and pray we the church have not lashed back at him to hard for his successes at doing so.

  • http://www.truthtolove.com Brad

    “Can Rob Bell — or you or I — be both “progressive” and “evangelical”?”

    No, not in the theological sense, as the two are diametric opposites in critical areas.

    • Charles

      I agree, Brad. The two terms are mutually exclusive, not only theologically but in practice. I used to be one, now I’ the other. I have yet to meet anyone who has gone from progressive Christianity to being an evangelical. However, I know hundreds who have moved the other way.

      • http://www.truthtolove.com Brad

        Charles,
        I know a few who have moved the other direction, but that’s probably because I’m on evangelical side of the spectrum.

  • jewellspring

    I don’t know, but without the possibility, I feel my hope free-fall.

    It’s such an important question.

  • Simon

    “Can Rob Bell — or you or I — be both “progressive” and “evangelical”?”

    Sure you can, protestant groupings are inherently blended. Even if progressive and evangelical were regarded as perpendicular cartesian axes (which I actually think is too simplistic anyway) then everyone would have a co-ordinate position in that matrix. And as your article suggests, its a vector not a cartesian point. So an evangelical may be “towards evangelical” or “from evangelical” but in protestantism there is no gate-keeper, not even Al Mohler, to draw the majesterial line to mark the insiders from the outsiders.

    I use both labels from time to time, and sometimes in combination, but neither would tend to be a self-label of first choice.

    If we want to use theological arguments then its easy to track a gospel trajectory and a trajectory of progress in the NT, which occasionally act in harmony and occasionally in contrast with each other.

  • Mary

    Good Grief!!! Haven’t we had enough labels?? Labels make it too easy for people to say I don’t like “THOSE kind” and leave their discernment at the door. Individuals thinking deeply about what they believe and considering it deeply is the best hope for Christianity.

  • Matt

    His move towards traditional religious practice like Communion is not surprising. It fits his evolutionary trajectory perfectly. Advocating a traditional religious practice is much different from being theologically conservative. Evangelicals, especially the most conservative ones, rarely practice communion, whereas the more progressive/liberal churches embrace tradition more. I’m not saying that no conservatives embrace traditions like communion in worship, but that theological conservatism and practice of tradition do not necessarily correlate. The difference is theological, having to do with the role of sacrament versus the preached word. Evangelicals value the preached word above all.

    I think that advocating for Communion shows a certain comfort with ambiguity, and a lose grip on all but the essentials. Sure there are a lot of complex questions about doctrine that one could preach about, but taking Communion grounds the community in the criterion for all Christian hope, life and practice: the death and resurrection of Christ for all. It’s the table that is big enough for everyone, and it shows the example of Christ to be followed: death in me, life for you.

    It could go either way, but I see it as an unsurprising development for one who has come from conservatism to an undeniably more progressive faith.

  • http://www.nateweatherly.com Nate W.

    Argh, yes, of course you can be a progressive and an evangelical. Both of these amorphous groups are running after the same thing from two different angles. Of course they’re going to butt heads in the middle.

    Labels are like the ok testament law. They’re helpful for the immature in physically approximating certain aspects of Truth, but they do not embody truth itself.

    It’s not one or the other or neither of the two.

  • Craig

    My advice: let the conservatives own “evangelical.” The term has evolved and sensible Christians should just stand aside as all the fundamentalist half-wits and GOP whores gather under its one banner. The remaining moderates will have a simpler choice: speak out with integrity and get purged by the inbreeding idiots, or suffocate in the backwards movement as it plumbs new depths of degeneration, delusion, and irrelevance. Mr. Dalrymple et al. can explain themselves to an increasingly incredulous public how they really are just being faithful to the gospel.

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  • JoeyS

    I’m just not that convinced that Bell was ever that anti-liturgical. I’ve visited the Mars Hill Community on several occasions and it definitely had segments that reflected more traditional forms of worship. The first time I was there they did a responsive reading and sang a few hymns. Every time I’ve been there they’ve shared communion and there is always some sort of benediction. It wasn’t overtly liturgical but it wasn’t anti either. It reminded me of a soft version of Solomon’s Porch with more music and less couches.

  • Joel

    I spent the last three years at Fuller Seminary and while there are obviously still many students firmly committed to “traditional” evangelicalism (whatever that is), I definitely sensed a stirring (maybe not a movement yet) toward a more progressive or maybe even a post-evangelicalism. So many friends expressed extreme frustration with their more conservative evangelical, sometimes fundamentalist, upbringings. There are a number of us recent graduates who have moved on to either liberal seminary or non-seminary PhD programs (I’m at Northwestern now) or who have taken roles in churches who are firmly committed to trying to figure out how to bring progressive/liberal theology into the mainstream of evangelical culture not to simply swap out progressive/liberal theology with conservative theology, but to at least begin to open the door to the possibility of fruitful engagement with what may seem like heterodoxy–to try to bring some humility to the table.

    I study Friedrich Schleiermacher and the history of German Liberal Protestantism. I think that tradition has a ton to say that’s really important to how we understand Christian thought and practice. I also identify as an evangelical, and I don’t see anything mutually exclusive in that. Is there tension? Absolutely. I feel it every time a relative comments on something “progressive” that I’ve posted on my Facebook page, or when my parents ask me what I’m learning in school (yes, they still do that!) But it’s not bad. It’s actually really good because it gives me an opportunity to show them that I’m not interested in showing them how wrong they’ve been; I’m interested in showing them that it is possible to not believe exactly what they do and still be an orthodox Christian.

  • Jnise

    Call him up and meet the mother f’er. Its time and long over do. Word and love. No more second hand blogs about bell!!!! You can do it!

    • Perpetua

      Meet the mother what? This must be a progressive thing. Or maybe this language is a new evolving evangelical thing? (Referring to those who F their mothers, that is.) I have a label for you. Toilet mouth.

      • Carl S

        Perpetua. Nope, not a progressive thing. Not sure what that is. I’m a progressive (although consider my theology quite orthodox [lower-case 'o']) some would say liberal politically, and while I surely appreciate the well-used four-letter word for artistic purposes, I dismay at the coarsening of our language generally for little or no purpose, and particularly of our spiteful language to describe those we may disagree with theologically (what’s with “half-wits” and “whores” up there?).

      • Curtis

        Calling people names because you don’t like the way they use language? No wonder religious folks can’t get along with each other.

  • http://patheos.com/blogs/adrianwarnock Adrian Warnock

    Thanks for this honest post. I’ve debated Bell and he struck me as a nice, genuine person but boy was it hard to have a conversation with him!

    As far as your comments about evangelicalism, I do agree its tough to define. I did have a go at that in my post http://www.patheos.com/blogs/adrianwarnock/2012/10/what-is-an-evangelical/ I wonder if you’d have time to take a look at that and let me know whether you agree or disagree with the line I took?

  • Steve

    Why don’t we just get honest and put an accurate label on Rob Bell: false teacher.

    • Phil Miller

      Because that would be the opposite of honest and accurate…

      False teacher does not equal “someone who disagrees with me”.

    • Perpetua

      A truth teller. Very refreshing. The emperor hasn’t any theological clothes. The term evangelical has been rendered meaningless by generations of pandering to culture rather than the objective authority of the Word of God. Progressive is equally meaningless a term as everyone from Wall Street Occupiers to Oprah Winfrey use the term. When you evolve and make things up as you go, you end up becoming ridiculous and ultimately, irrelevant anyway.

    • Frank

      Some of us already rightfully have.

  • http://www.nature.com Agnikan

    He’s turning Catholic.

  • Pingback: Links: What is a Christian, evangelical, progressive? « John Meunier

    • York

      Hi

      From what I have read Rob Bell teaches annihilationism, the idea that the soul will “burn up” or dissapear after a finite period of time. I don’t know if his position has changed concerning this ? The point is that, when you publish this opinion, those who read it are given the false impression that licence for sin is reasonably acceptable. This is because the devil will convince you,”Oh don’t worry, you can sin, since you are going to dissapear anyway, so what are you worried about ?”

      THIS IS SATANIC HERESY TO THE EXTREME. He is going to have to apologize to the public and warn those who have read his book not to believe this lie, because he is going to be held accountable for giving this false view of God. May God have mercy on his ( and my own ) soul !!

      Amen

      • http://tonyj.net Tony Jones

        Surely Rob Bell is a satanic heretic in your estimation, but he does not teach annihilationism. Maybe you should read his work yourself rather than taking other people’s word for it.

  • http://whoisrobdavis.wordpress.com Rob Davis

    I don’t think the word evangelical is worth defending, redefining, recovering, or whatever – despite what Roger Olson hopes for. Olson’s “new fundamentalism” is what is popularly accepted as evangelicalism, and I’m thankful for that.

    When Al Mohler is the loudest voice of a movement, it has long lost any relation to anything remotely “progressive.”

  • Curtis

    The term “evangelical” made more sense the way Luther used it. Of course Luther’s meaning is long lost in the way “evangelical” is used now.

  • Nathan

    Yikes, I’m having flashbacks to te rhetorical posturing of the early anti-emergent online tantrums and post workshop browbeatings at the EC shindigs in San Diego.

    It was all a moralistic cul-de-sac obsessed with impressing on all us “toilet mouths” the culturally contingent metaphors “God” apparently hates and a general sense of self-satisfaction with their sophistry.

    Just FYI about Emperors with no clothes…
    “Objectivity” is a unicorn. But I’ll grant it is a very pretty one that bestows an artificial sense of of epistemic security as it flies around with its rainbow colored tail, glowing spiraled horn, shooting hearts, butterflies and stars out its ass.

    2 fingers of rye, neat, please.

  • http://benirwin.wordpress.com Ben Irwin

    I don’t think it’s accurate to say Bell spurned liturgy while at Mars Hill. I was there for the “middle years” of Rob’s tenure, and it was during this time that Mars Hill began observing Lent, complete with an Ash Wednesday service to kick it off. OK, it’s not quite the full-blown smells and bells I’ve since become accustomed to as an Episcopalian…but liturgy was a growing part of the Mars Hill experience before Rob left.

  • Vallen Cook

    This post hits me as fascinating, in that people in this day in age do not like change. I agree that change occurring quickly is a bad thing, but what about the new generations of people growing up? As is the case, people grow up and they change, and with this Christianity will change. So the fact that Rob Bell is changing is not so surprising, but what is surprising is the number of people not willing to change. Even looking at the bible from another angle would suggest that it was written for a particular people at a particular time. As we read into what theology is right, we all read it differently, because of our backgrounds, and from this we ask different questions (like Bell is doing). I am not defending or supporting Bell, I am merely just stating my thoughts on the subject.

  • Curtis

    Speaking of toilet mouths. Patheos has another blog post today about potty mouths gospel. Thought I would share it. What is evangelism if it is not sharing the gospel in the current vernacular?

  • http://customcoolrugs.com Eliza gatfield

    As a bleeding heart liberal, athiest Jew,laguna beach native, who ten years ago opened my heart and mind to Christ within the walls of a conservative, reactionary Illinois church- I can categorically state that I am currently both evangelical and utterly, radically liberal (that’s new York lingo for extreme progressive).

    I deeply admire Bells brave faith & bold willingness to take risks for the sake of God and the betterment of our human condition. He is part artist part theologian which is in part what I think accounts for his unusual and poignant openness to an evolving understanding of our faith and how it might grow and thrive within our contemporary culture.
    I recently had the deep honor of participating in a seminar Bell held In my hometown of laguna. It was a transforming experience for me- presenting many new questions and ideas to me that I sense are already transforming and reorienting my faith and leadership journey. At the end of our days together Rob led us in communion. I just want to preface the point I’m about to take with this: in my ten or so years as a Christian Ive been fortunate to partake in communion in an extremely varied set of churches, places and countries- from the shores of Israel and the gardens of Gethsemene, to spirit filled churches in France, evangelical churches in England, catholic churches in Italy, Methodist churches in ny, ultra conservative churches in the Midwest and on and on- I have been very blessed to experience a varried and diverse array of worship and communion experiences. The simple communion that Rob Bell served us in a non descript hotel space on a hill above the beach of Laguna was by far one of the most sacred, moving and truly holy experiences I have had. California needs robs open, loving, progressivel AND evangelical faith- as do we all.
    As a designer living on new York who only weeks ago had the difficult task of trying to explain to my many secular friends what on earth I was doing in taking a trip to see some Midwest preacher/writer in so. Cal. I am thrilled now to hand my friends a copy of thier beloved read (the new Yorker of course!) to begin some sensible conversations about faith that they will take seriously. Thank you, thank you Rob Bell!!! Please don’t ever stop evolving! Eliza

    • choose truth

      I wonder if it is right for a Christian to give up/ abandon mentally-challenged spouse for another person in name of so called love… What do you think?

  • http://www.progressivechristianitybook.com Roger Wolsey

    some may think labels to be passe, but alas, I’d say he’s an emergent evangelical.

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