Aristotle and Luther: On Justice, Virtue and the Reformation of Values

Food for Thought

Do we become just by doing just things or by being made just? This is a key question in view of Aristotle and Luther.In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle writes that “by doing just things we become just.”[1] Luther took an opposing stance: we become good by being made good. Luther had harsh words for Aristotle’s Ethics.[2] According to Luther in his “Disputation Against Scholastic Theology,” the fallen will is not free to choose the good; it will bear bad fruit—choosing and doing only evil.[3 … [Read more...]

Grateful for the Dead

Photos Imported on 8-25-14 227

Editors’ Note: This article is part of the Public Square on Remembering Our Dead: Ancestors, Rituals, Relics. Read other perspectives from the Patheos community here. Are you grateful for the dead—any dead? One of the major holidays in Japan is Obon or Bon. The holiday celebration centers on honoring one's ancestors who are believed to return home during the celebration in mid-August of every year.People in Japan don't walk away from the dead. There is a living bond or connection. The pictur … [Read more...]

Kyogen Carlson: Bridge-Builder over Troubled Waters

Burnside bridge

Zen Buddhist priest Kyogen Carlson (1948-2014) was a bridge-builder. He built bridges of understanding and respect over the dirty, murky, troubled waters of our nation's culture wars. It is a deep irony that a man with such an open heart and mind died of a massive heart attack. Whether one knew him or not, each person owes him a debt of mindfulness for what he risked and accomplished. Among other related practices, he helped bring liberal Buddhists and conservative Evangelical Christians … [Read more...]

What’s Behind Jesus’ Mask?

businessman talking on the phone

What’s behind Jesus’ mask? Jesus.Jesus is not a mode that a divine “nameless, faceless, omni-being”[1] puts on and takes off. What we see in Jesus is what we get with his Father. Together with the Spirit, they share the divine name in the sacred story of life (See Matthew 28:19). The Father's actions through the interpersonal mediation of the Son and Spirit in history reveal the eternal triune being of the one God.As I have written elsewhere, “God is greater than what he is in revelatio … [Read more...]

Are All Moral Problems Mental? Reflections on Christianity and Hinduism

Hindu picture

What is the problem of our human condition? What is the solution? Many views of human nature can be set forth in terms of answering these questions. Historic Christianity and Hinduism answer these questions very differently. The ultimate problem of human nature for many, if not all, orthodox Christians is moral separation from God and one another. The ultimate problem for Hinduism is mental or psychological.[1] While one can never truly separate moral and mental issues from one another, this … [Read more...]

Sola Scriptura, Not Solitary Confinement

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Sola Scriptura (Scripture alone) does not mean and should not entail solitary confinement of the Bible from church tradition or reason. Rather, the phrase entails that the Bible is the final written authority in all matters pertaining to the church’s faith and practice (See this helpful introduction to the subject in Lutheran theology).For example, in his 95 Theses of 1517, Martin Luther challenged the use of “indulgences” granted by papal authority (See for example thesis 21 and thesis 27 on … [Read more...]

We Are On Trial: Reflections on Kafka and The Bible

United States Supreme Court Building

We are on trial. Unlike Franz Kafka’s Trial, the divine Judge revealed in the Bible issues particular laws by which to abide and specific charges and verdicts of guilt and/or innocence. The divine Judge also discloses his identity rather than hide in the shadows during court proceedings.In our day, many people find laws oppressive. Laws can be oppressive, when society operates like the one in Kafka’s Trial. The legal system in Kafka’s work is nebulous and open to distortion and abuse. Contr … [Read more...]


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