This was the kind of stuff that intrigued me most when I was a philosophy student. Specifically the Philosophy of Mind, but with it the questions of identity, both of persons and objects. Questions about the soul and God and ultimate nature of the universe follow quickly.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pGTleaTCXq8
Mark Siderits is your guy in Buddhist philosophy if you’re looking for interesting parallels (here’s a bit from his book on personal identity where he mentions the Ship of Theseus). And ah-ha, here is his full length article on Buddhist Reductionism (Philosophy East and West, 1997).