Principles of Moral Thought and Action
Written by: Allan Nadler
Unlike Christianity, which rejected the continued validity of the "ritual laws" (or "works") of the Hebrew scriptures, Judaism affirms the eternally binding validity of the covenant of law contained in the Torah. Moreover, the rabbis never distinguished between moral/ethical and ritual/sacral commandments. Rabbinical Judaism thus takes a holistic view of the halakhic system, according to which no greater importance is place on any one mitzvah, or commandment, over the other.
The complex legal methodology of Midrash Halakha, whereby the rabbis have, over the course of almost two millennia, derived current law from ancient biblical principles, is based on thirteen hermeneutical, or exegetical, principles of scriptural interpretation, combined with a strong commitment to precedent. As a consequence, halakha derives from an ongoing process of biblical exegesis that is tempered by the rulings of earlier generations of rabbis and a strong commitment to traditional common practice, known as minhag.
In rabbinic Judaism there is no independent source—to say nothing of any official or normative code—of moral and ethical thought and behavior, outside of the halakha. Even medieval rationalist efforts to explain halakha in moral or ethical terms were deemed by religiously conservative rabbis as potentially subversive, and they insisted that laws of the Torah must be obeyed for no reason beyond the fact that they reflect the will of God. This positivist approach to halakha, which has dominated rabbinical thought for most of Jewish history and is akin to classical Islam's posture of submission to Shariah (Muslim law) did not, however, prevent the emergence of certain obvious ethical principles from a plain understanding of the Torah's prohibitions. These include sanctions against killing, stealing, coveting, adultery, cruelty to animals, and interfering with nature's course; they also include the positive injunctions to love God, love the stranger, love your neighbor as yourself, pursue justice, feed and clothe the needy, show kindness to the stranger or foreigner, etc.
Such biblical laws led the rabbis to an overarching affirmation of the sanctity and dignity of human life, the respect for and kindness to all of God's creatures, and a general deference to natural law as a reflection of the Divine plan. The dietary laws, and the special regulations pertaining to ritual slaughtering, resulted in particular Jewish sensibilities about what is "clean and unclean" in the natural world, just as the special regulations governing the ritual slaughtering of animals led the rabbis to formulate a prohibition against causing needless, or unnatural, suffering to any of God's creatures.
|Key principles of Jewish dietary laws (kashrut)|
|Forbidden to consume:|
1. Mammals that do not both chew their cud and have cloven hooves, such as pigs, camels, and hares
2. Shellfish and any fish without both scales and fins
3. Mixing meat products and dairy products
4. Birds and mammals that have not been slaughtered according to specific rules (shechita)