Written by: Benjamin E. Zeller
The New Age movement draws from a rich repository of alternative spiritual traditions in the western world ranging from metaphysics to mysticism, uniting these disparate influences under a common banner of self- and world-transformation. Chief among those spiritual traditions that served as influences for the New Age are three 19th-century new religious movements that scholars group together as "metaphysical traditions": New Thought, Theosophy, and Spiritualism. As the New Age developed, it not only drew theological concepts from these traditions but also new adherents from their organizations. Many of the first New Age gatherings developed directly out of these groups, most notably the early study groups for the New Age text A Course in Miracles, which met in the New Thought centers operated by the Unity School of Christianity. In addition to these three 19th-century precursors, the Asian religious traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism and the concurrently-developing transpersonal psychology movement also served as influences in the New Age movement. The 19th-century natural foods movement, with its emphasis on purity, internal cleansing, and unorthodox medical treatments, overlapped considerable with New Thought, Theosophy, and Spiritualism.
The 19th-century new religious movement known as New Thought splintered from Christian Science during the 1880s, eventually spreading throughout North America and Britain. Like Christian Science, New Thought declares that the spiritual rather than physical comprises the fundamental nature of the world, and that the power of the mind can change that world. Consequently, New Thought teaches a form of spiritual self-development that aimed to develop the human being and construct a better reality. Practices tend to emphasize healing, spiritual evolution, and the development of prosperity. The largest of the New Thought denominations during the 20th century, Unity School of Christianity, helped birth the New Age movement by hosting many initial gatherings of New Age practitioners. Both of the cardinal theological perspectives of New Thought-the power of the human mind and practices of self-development-flowed directly into the New Age.
New Age's second major influence, Spiritualism, similarly developed during the 19th century. Spiritualism aimed to prove scientifically the postmortem continuation of human existence through the direct communication with the spirits of the departed. It also championed progressive social reform, most notably feminism. Though Spiritualist séances often focused on bridging the divide between the living and their departed friends and family, over time Spiritualist mediums increasingly spoke for the spirits of great spiritual saints and teachers. The New Age did not directly borrow specific Spiritualist mediumship techniques, such as trance writing and voice alteration, but made use of the underlying assumptions that a living human being might speak for a great spiritual master. Like New Thought, the New Age also drew adherents from Spiritualism. During the 1970s, many professional mediums even began to refer to their practices as New Age channeling rather than Spiritualism.