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Rituals and Worship

Sacred Time

Reformed sacred time is organized by a liturgical calendar that celebrates all the major events in the life of Jesus and of the early Church throughout the course of each year.

Sacred Space

Sacred space in the Reformed tradition is characterized by a relatively austere aesthetic, and is designed to focus attention on preaching and on the two sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper.

Rites and Ceremonies

The meaning of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper have been among the most important and contentious aspects of Reformed theology, setting Reformed Christians off not just from Catholics but from other Protestants as well.

Worship and Devotion in Daily Life

Reformed daily life is shaped by the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers (which in Calvinism leads to idea of vocation and the Protestant work ethic), by an increased focus on all aspects of the personal lives of parishioners, and by a requirement for increased levels of education.


Reformed symbolism tends to be fairly austere, and directs attention to the key doctrines of salvation by faith (as a gift of the Spirit), the priesthood of all believers (and so a downplaying of symbols setting aside ministers as different from others), and sola scriptura (the importance of the Bible).