BREAKING: Pope to resign

Multiple news sources are now reporting it, saying it will take effect on February 28, with a conclave in March.

From BBC:  

The 85-year-old Pope is to resign at the end of this month in an entirely unexpected development, saying he is too old continue.

He became Pope Benedict XVI in 2005 following the John Paul II’s death.

Resignations from the papacy are not unknown, but this is the first in the modern era, which has been marked by pontiffs dying while in office.

At 78, the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was one of the oldest new popes in history when elected.

He took the helm as one of the fiercest storms the Catholic Church has faced in decades – the scandal of child sex abuse by priests – was breaking.

In a statement, he said: “After having repeatedly examined my conscience before God, I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise of the Petrine ministry…

“In today’s world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of Saint Peter and proclaim the Gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months, has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognise my incapacity to adequately fulfil the ministry entrusted to me.”

I attempted to read the official Vatican news cite (news.va) for confirmation or details.  It appears to have crashed.

From the Vatican Radio website (if you scroll to the bottom at this link, you can hear the pope reading this text in Latin):

Pope Benedict XVI on Monday said he plans on resigning the papal office on February 28th. Below please find his announcement.

Full text of Pope’s declaration

Dear Brothers,
I have convoked you to this Consistory, not only for the three canonizations, but also to communicate to you a decision of great importance for the life of the Church. After having repeatedly examined my conscience before God, I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise of the Petrine ministry. I am well aware that this ministry, due to its essential spiritual nature, must be carried out not only with words and deeds, but no less with prayer and suffering. However, in today’s world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of Saint Peter and proclaim the Gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months, has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognize my incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry entrusted to me. For this reason, and well aware of the seriousness of this act, with full freedom I declare that I renounce the ministry of Bishop of Rome, Successor of Saint Peter, entrusted to me by the Cardinals on 19 April 2005, in such a way, that as from 28 February 2013, at 20:00 hours, the See of Rome, the See of Saint Peter, will be vacant and a Conclave to elect the new Supreme Pontiff will have to be convoked by those whose competence it is.

Dear Brothers, I thank you most sincerely for all the love and work with which you have supported me in my ministry and I ask pardon for all my defects. And now, let us entrust the Holy Church to the care of Our Supreme Pastor, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and implore his holy Mother Mary, so that she may assist the Cardinal Fathers with her maternal solicitude, in electing a new Supreme Pontiff. With regard to myself, I wish to also devotedly serve the Holy Church of God in the future through a life dedicated to prayer.

From the Vatican, 10 February 2013

Associated Press notes this is the first papal resignation in 600 years.

An update via ABC News notes that his brother says the pope had been considering this move for months, and that his doctor advised him not to take any more overseas trips.

Washington Post

BBC

CNN.

Bloomberg.

The Telegraph. 

CBS News

Stay tuned.

Meantime, Fr. Thomas Reese has been following the nuances of papal resignation.  In an e-mail, he notes:

The number popes who may have resigned has been estimated as high as 10, but the historical evidence is limited. Most recently, during the Council of Constance in the 15th century, the Gregory XII resigned to bring about the end of the Western Schism and a new pope was elected in 1417. Pope Celestine V’s resignation in 1294 is the most famous because Dante placed him in hell for it.

Most modern popes have felt that resignation is unacceptable. As Paul VI said, paternity cannot be resigned. In addition, Paul feared setting a precedent that would encourage factions in the church to pressure future popes to resign for reasons other than health. Nevertheless, the code of canon law in 1917 provided for the resignation of a pope as do the regulations established by Paul VI in 1975 and John Paul II in 1996. However, a resignation induced through fear or fraud would be invalid. In addition, canonists argue that a person resigning from an office must be of sound mind (canon 187).

In 1989 and in 1994, John Paul II secretly prepared letters offering the College of Cardinals his resignation in case of an incurable disease or other condition that would prevent him from fulfilling his ministry, according to Msgr. Sławomir Oder, postulator of the late pope’s cause.

Catholic News Service reports:

The 1989 letter was brief and to the point; it says that in the case of an incurable illness that prevents him from “sufficiently carrying out the functions of my apostolic ministry” or because of some other serious and prolonged impediment, “I renounce my sacred and canonical office, both as bishop of Rome as well as head of the holy Catholic Church.”

In his 1994 letter the pope said he had spent years wondering whether a pope should resign at age 75, the normal retirement age for bishops. He also said that, two years earlier, when he thought he might have a malignant colon tumor, he thought God had already decided for him.

Then, he said, he decided to follow the example of Pope Paul VI who, in 1965, concluded that a pope “could not resign the apostolic mandate except in the presence of an incurable illness or an impediment that would prevent the exercise of the functions of the successor of Peter.”

“Outside of these hypotheses, I feel a serious obligation of conscience to continue to fulfill the task to which Christ the Lord has called me as long as, in the mysterious plan of his providence, he desires,” the letter said.

Historical evidence for papal resignations is limited, especially if one eliminates resignations that may have been forced.

  1. Clement I (92?-101). Epiphanius asserted that Clement gave up the pontificate to Linus for the sake of peace and became pope again after the death of Cletus.
  2. Pontian (230-235). Allegedly resigned after being exiled to the mines of Sardinia during persecution of Maximinus Thrax.
  3. Cyriacus. A fictional character created in the Middle Ages who supposedly received a heavenly command to resign.
  4. Marcellinus (296-304). Abdicated or was deposed after complying with Diocletian’s order to offer sacrifice to pagan gods.
  5. Martin I (649-655). Exiled by Emperor Constans II to Crimea. Before he died, clergy of Rome elected a successor whom he appears to have approved.
  6. Benedict V (964). After one month in office, he accepted deposition by Emperor Otto I.
  7. Benedict IX (1032-45). Benedict resigned after selling the papacy to his godfather Gregory VI.
  8. Gregory VI (1045-46). Deposed for simony by Henry III.
  9. Celestine V (1294). A hermit, elected at age of 80 and overwhelmed by the office, resigned. He was imprisoned by his successor.
  10. Gregory XII (1406-15). Resigned at request of Council of Constance to help end the Great Western Schism.

Source: Patrick Granfield, “Papal Resignation” (The Jurist, winter and spring 1978) and J. N. D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1986).

In Light of the World, Pope Benedict responded unambiguously to a question about whether a pope could resign: “Yes. If a Pope clearly realizes that he is no longer physically, psychologically, and spiritually capable of handling the duties of his office, then he has a right and, under some circumstances, also an obligation to resign.”

On the other hand, he did not favor resignation simply because the burden of the papacy is great. “When the danger is great one must not run away. For that reason, now is certainly not the time to resign. Precisely at a time like this one must stand fast and endure the situation. That is my view. One can resign at a peaceful moment or when one simply cannot go on. But one must not run away from danger and say someone else should do it.”

Trackbacks

  1. [...] entirely unexpected development, saying he is too old continue. He became Pope Benedict XVI Source: The Deacons Bench by Deacon Greg Kandra   Category: Blogs and [...]

  2. [...] The Deacon’s Bench has a long comment from Fr. Reese that’s got good background info. Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like2 bloggers like this.   [...]

  3. [...] 6: the Deacon’s bench has a roundup including a brief history of popes who have resigned. In Light of the World, Pope Benedict [...]

  4. [...] There’s some valuable background from Fr. Reese, over at the newspost at the Deacon’s Bench. [...]

  5. [...] to teach, us much.For all of the official announcements and such, I’ll direct you to Deacon Greg Kandra’s place.  Be sure also to check in with Timothy Cardinal Dolan for his thoughts too. All the major [...]

  6. [...] information and reflections on the resignation by my fellow Patheos bloggers, you can check out Deacon Greg’s and Frank Weathers’ posts. You should also keep checking back to the Patheos Catholic [...]

  7. [...] Greg Kandra has written an excellent news roundup of this announcement. I encourage you to go here to read it. The announcement from Vatican radio is below. From the Vatican Radio website:Pope [...]

  8. [...] has flung open that door and made a like announcement. Of course, the former theology professor was pretty sober about the whole thing. “In order to govern the bark of Saint Peter and proclaim the Gospel,” he announced [...]

  9. [...] this is the third time in history that a Benedict has resigned the papacy. The last time it was Benedict IX, a dissolute scion of the [...]


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