Principles of Moral Thought
Written by: Ted Vial
Protestants have a generally common understanding of moral behavior: they largely agree that good works cannot save a person—only God can—but those who are saved will amend their lives to reflect their faith. Protestantism teaches that the individual is made right with God through faith in what God has done, not through any kind of virtuous behavior. That said, there is a wide variety of beliefs within Protestantism about how good works cooperate with God's saving grace, or follow upon salvation.
Lutherans and Reformed Protestants believe that good works play absolutely no role in salvation. Salvation consists in the forgiveness of sins, which is a completely free and un-prompted gift from God. Zwingli and Calvin agreed with Luther that even those elected by God to receive God's grace cannot perform works that merit salvation. The elect remain sinners, even after they have been justified through faith. This does not mean that any of the reformers taught that good works were not important at all. They were important to the reformers, and they are to most Protestants today. The only question was what role good works played in the life of a believer.
John Wesley and the Methodists following him (and much of American Protestantism in the wake of Wesley's influence) taught that good works—though performed only with the help of God's grace—definitely will accompany salvation, and that those who are saved can, through their own efforts, contribute to the process of Christian holiness, understood as thoughts, words, and deeds being motivated solely and purely by the love of God. Leading a life that is not marked by good works and that is marked by evil or immoral behavior can lead to the loss of one's salvation; thus the believer's behavior has a pivotal role in the ongoing experience of salvation, and thus the warnings against "backsliding."
All Protestant churches, therefore, have high expectations for moral behavior. Luther did not think works could save, but he did think that a good tree bears good fruit. The saved, freed from anxiety about their own salvation, can devote their attention to helping their fellow humans. They do so because the same work of the Holy Spirit that brought them to believe that their sins had been forgiven continues to work in them to do God's will. They do so because service to fellow humans glorifies God. And they do so because as they grow in the life of faith they become more Christ-like and so take on aspects of Jesus, such as seeing the image of God in everyone, even enemies, and reaching out to the poor and imprisoned, etc. While moral works are not necessary to retain salvation, such works will in fact characterize those who are saved. (The German sociologist Max Weber argued that Calvinists tend to be driven to perform works, not because they think works will save them, but because the ability to perform good works can be seen as a possible indication of God's grace, and a sign that one is among the elect.)