The Fear of Science
One of the biggest steps toward learning to deal with my own crippling skepticism has been to convince myself that Christianity is not irrational.
Deep down, I had always feared that if I thought too deeply or learned too much about science, this faith that brought hope and meaning to my life would eventually be exposed as wishful thinking, no more credible than an ancient myth or fairy tale.
You know what I’m talking about.
That nagging suspicion that if the beliefs at the center of our faith were examined under a microscope for too long they might disappear into nothing, revealed to be unfounded and delusional.
The fear that science might disprove God.
In its more extreme forms, this fear of science leads some Christians to make absurd claims about the historical and scientific accuracy of Biblical texts. They fear that if even one aspect of their belief system is proven false, the whole thing might collapse. In the eyes of these Christians, scientists must be either deluded or evil, deliberately trying to distort the truth.
My fear of science came in subtler forms. For example, it concerned me that spiritual experiences and “answers to prayer” could be explained away by psychology and neuroscience. How could I fully trust the Christian story if science was able to give equally — and often more — credible explanations?
I wanted proof of God’s existence, and science seemed to be eroding all my evidence. Skepticism was gradually gnawing away at my faith.
The Rise of New Atheism
It’s pretty hard to ignore atheism these days. The atheist voice in our culture is loud, angry, and very convincing at times. So much so that belief in God can seem a bit silly, like still believing in the Tooth Fairy or Santa Claus.
This quote is from the British comedian, Jimmy Carr:
“When I was a kid, I used to have an imaginary friend. I thought he went everywhere with me. I could talk to him and he could hear me, and he could grant me wishes and stuff too. But then I grew up, and stopped going to church.”
Ouch! That hurts, doesn’t it?
More and more, I found myself wondering if people like Jimmy were right – if the whole Christianity thing was one giant hoax, a distraction from reality.
In a discussion between atheists and Christians, I would nearly always find myself siding with the atheists. The thing is, Christians are irrational a lot of the time, and atheists are actually doing important work in exposing the bad side of religion.
I was never really fussed about the finer points of Christian belief. They differ from one denomination to the next, from one church to the next. Heck, for me they can change from one week to the next. I was concerned with the BIG questions. Was the universe designed by a supreme Being? Is there such thing as a spiritual realm? Does life have ultimate purpose and meaning?
(I should mention at this point that I am married to a biologist, who is also a Christian. For him, science and faith are entirely compatible, and atheism is no more rational than Christianity. It is through many lengthy discussions with him, and through reading the work of other like-minded thinkers, that I have been able to come to the following conclusions.)
Science has its limits
Jimmy Carr was brought up Catholic and, like many others, became an atheist after reading Richard Dawkins’ The God Delusion. In this hugely influential book, Dawkins’ argues that:
- Evolution through natural selection provides evidence against intelligent design by a Creator.
- We don’t need religion to be good.
- Religion is bad for the world.
- The God Hypothesis cannot be proven and is highly improbable, therefore God almost certainly doesn’t exist.
I actually agree with many of his arguments, and would probably be a convert if it weren’t for the following points:
- There are a great number of scientists, including biologists, who believe in God.
- There is some scientific evidence that religious belief can have benefits for general well-being. This doesn’t mean that it is definitely a good thing for the planet as a whole, but it makes the blanket statement “religion is bad” scientifically untenable. (Mike McHargue’s Finding God In The Waves explores some of this research in fascinating detail).
- The God Hypothesis cannot be proven, but neither can the Atheist Hypothesis.
Science is the study of the natural world. It is very good at showing us how things work. But it cannot comment on the why questions. It can tell us how the universe came to be and how complex life evolved through natural selection, but it is not qualified to make statements about meaning or purpose.The Christian scientists I have come across tend to all say a similar thing: science tells us how life works, faith gives it meaning. They are not in opposition. Christianity and Rationalism are examples of interpretive frameworks or narratives used to explain what we see in the world around us – science itself doesn’t take sides.
The Very Unsatisfactory Conclusion
I think it’s reasonable to conclude that ultimately, none of us can know the answers to these big questions. If we delve as far as we can into theology, philosophy, science, history, and any other discipline we can think of, at the center we find a deep mystery. A fog. We humans just aren’t capable of grasping ultimate knowledge about divine things.
This is very disappointing news for, well, all of us really. It’s not at all fun being in the fog. We want clarity. We crave answers and neat explanations. We long for the power to understand everything and the ability to prove everyone else wrong. We’ve mastered everything else, why can’t we prove or disprove the existence of God?
Because we’re only human, that’s why. As much as we would like to be, we are not omniscient.
This means that whether I believe in God or not, it’s a choice. It takes faith to believe in God, and it takes faith to believe that there is no God. (Any atheists reading this will have smashed their screens by now). I can’t prove it either way, so I make up my mind as best I can based on the evidence I have.
This is bad news for many atheists, for whom getting rid of the fog means wiping out all religion and holding rationalism as the only form of truth. It’s also bad news for many Christians, for whom getting rid of the fog means proving the existence of God once and for all.
We have to learn to live in the fog, which means admitting that whatever our position, we could be wrong.
I remember having a mini-revelation about all this while walking along the canal in my parents’ village one afternoon in late summer. I was grilling my husband (again) about science and faith issues and how we can know we’re not deluding ourselves … when the most blindingly obvious but soul-stirringly profound thought struck me. That’s what faith is. If we could prove it, it wouldn’t be faith.
I longed so much for proof. I felt sure that if only I could know for certain that God existed, I would find assurance and peace of mind.
I have to tell you, figuring out that there are no absolute answers available to me didn’t do much for my peace of mind. But having confidence that to be a person of faith is just as intellectually valid as being an atheist was a good starting point. It gave me intellectual permission to continue calling myself a Christian, and to seek to deepen my experience of life through faith in an ultimate Source and a deeper meaning. It also gave me intellectual permission to read as many “secular” books as I liked without fearing that they might disprove God.
To conclude, we return to the problem I explored in Part 1 of this series, of faith being primarily about intellectual beliefs held as objective fact. If my faith is based entirely on a solid framework of beliefs, then if any of them are challenged I’m in trouble. (Or I can just put my fingers in my ears and sing loudly). My faith has to be based on more than intellectual reasoning. I simply can’t prove my beliefs rationally to anyone else, so I have to hold onto them lightly, respect the views of others, and be genuinely open to changing my mind.
As I said, this was a starting point for me. You can follow the rest of my Faith in the Fog series at www.emmahiggs.com.
Photo via Pixabay.
About Emma Higgs
Emma Higgs lives with her husband and two toddlers in Plymouth, England. When she finds a minute, she blogs about progressive theology and mental health, amongst other things, at www.emmahiggs.com. Find her on Facebook and Twitter.