The leadership styles of contemporary Christian churches can be sorted into three broad categories. The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Methodist, and Lutheran churches follow an episcopal (governed by bishops) leadership style. These churches place a high value on the doctrine of apostolic succession, believing that the bishops are the inheritors of the authority of the apostles. Presbyterian churches invest the presbyters with leadership and authority. Seeing no evidence for the doctrine of apostolic succession in the New Testament, Presbyterian churches invest authority in the session, an assembly of members comprised of the minister or ministers and ordained laity, called ruling elders, elected by the congregation. The minister presides, but all elders have an equal right in discussion and in voting. Finally, Baptists and many free church traditions follow a model of congregational leadership in which local churches are independent and self-governing; while a minister leads the congregation, community decisions are made by majority vote.
There is a great deal of room for variation within these models of leadership, and some churches do not fit neatly into any one of these categories. Specific clerical and other leadership customs are discussed in the separate articles on the different Christian traditions.
1. How was Christianity originally hierarchical? Is it still structured this way? Explain.
2. Describe how political instability helped to solidify the pope's place of power.
3. What are the three broad leadership categories within Christianity? What denominations fall under each?