The country has an area of 419,212 square miles and a population of 3.3 million. Almost the entire population practices Sunni Islam. There are very small numbers of non-Muslims, almost exclusively non-Mauritanian; Roman Catholic or other Christian churches are located in Nouakchott, Atar, Zouerate, Nouadhibou, and Rosso. Although there are no synagogues, a very small number of expatriates practice Judaism.
There were several foreign faith-based nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) active in humanitarian and developmental work in the country.