Falun Gong is a religious movement founded by Li Hongzhi in China in 1992. Falun Gong adopts elements from a variety of Asian religious traditions including Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, ancient indigenous Chinese religions, as well as Western New Age movements. Falun Gong followers do not consider it to be a religion, but a "cultivation practice" which aims to bring inner peace and health to individuals and society. Based on meditation techniques of Qi Gong, this cultivation occurs through practices which guide one to improvement and renewal of the heart and mind through the study of the three universal principles of benevolence, truthfulness, and forbearance. The specific practice of Falun Gong includes five exercises of meditation and slow movements called Xiu Lian, of which four are standing and one is sitting. It is believed that the practice of Xiu Lian can awaken the spiritual energy within a person and can thus serve as an alternative to traditional medicine. Falun Gong's primary text is Li Hongzhi's book, Zhuan Falun ("Turning the Law Wheel"); but a basic book, Falun Gong, also covers the fundamental concepts and practices of the tradition. The tradition was officially banned in China in 1999 following a decade during which Falun Gong members were harassed, beaten, and imprisoned by the government. The tradition has spread throughout the world from its birthplace in China.