Exploration and Conquest

The early Islamic conquests and subsequent Empire are marked features of the development of Islam as a whole. The Umayyad Dynasty, ruling during the greatest period of expansion from the mid-7th to the mid-8th centuries, existed, strictly speaking, in a period known as "formative." That is, designations such as "Sunni" were yet to have acquired any definite sectarian meaning in this early stage of Muslim life. Nonetheless, the Umayyad period is one to which we can trace basic building blocks of what would come to be known as Sunni Islam, with its particular vision of leadership and authority.Umayyad caliphate at its greatest extent (750 CE): Public  Domain

When it comes to assessing persecution and authority in Islamic history, the institution of the caliphate is the one in which tensions and rifts show through most clearly. The term "caliphate" refers, in the first instance, to the position of political and spiritual authority over the Islamic community.  The caliph was referred to as "Amir al-Mu'minin," the "Commander of the Believers." The exact meaning and nuances of this phrase shifted to accommodate differing interpretations of legislative and spiritual jurisdiction.

In spite of its apparent clarity of meaning, the caliphate has been one of the most divisive issues in Islamic history, going as far back as the original succession to Muhammad. While the original caliphate was Muhammad's rule in Medina, over the course of time, several states were led by caliphates, and occasionally by rival ones.  Again, with precedents as early as the election of Abu Bakr's ascension to the role of caliph in 632 C.E., Sunnis believed that a process of consensus, or shura, should determine who holds the position of caliph.  The historical vision of Sunnis includes a consideration of the first four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman and Ali, as "Rightly Guided" or "Rashidun."

"Golden Age" or "Age of Rashidun"
Death of Muhammad 632 CE
Caliphate of Abu Bakr 632-634 CE
Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab 634-644 CE
Caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan 644-656 CE
Caliphate of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (cousin & son-in-law of Mohammad) 656-661 CE
Fitna: first Islamic civil war 656-661 CE
Arbitration between Ali and Mu'awiyah 658 CE
Death of Ali ibn Abi Talib 661 CE

Several dynasties and empires have claimed caliphs, from the 7th until the 20th century. There have been periods in which caliphs were instituted over different parts of the Islamic Empire at the same time. For example, after the overthrow of the Umayyads by the Abbasid Dynasty in 750 C.E., a branch of the former fled to Spain, and after a period of constituting their own emirate or territorial principality under a local commander, instituted a counter caliphate that lasted from the 10th to the 11th century. The Umayyads in Spain continued the Syrian caliphate and only claimed the title of the caliphs after the Fatimids (see below) had done the same. The rapid turnover and various depositions and restorations of the Umayyad Caliphate in Cordoba reveal the tumultuous circumstances under which this region of the Islamic Empire was ruled.

The Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000 at the apogee of Al-MansurThe Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba

  • Abd al-Rahman III - changed the titular rule from emir to caliph, reigned 929-961
  • Al-Hakam II - reigned 961-976
  • Hisham II - reigned 976-1008
  • Mohammed II - reigned 1008-1009
  • Suleiman II - reigned 1009-1010
  • Hisham II - second reign 1010-1012
  • Suleiman II - second reign 1012-1016
  • ‘Abd al-Rahman IV - reigned 1017
  • Interregnum by the Hammudid dynasty 1016-1023
  • The Umayyad dynasty returns - 1023
  •  ‘Abd al-Rahman V - reigned 1023-1024
  •  Muhammad III - reigned 1024-1025
  • Hisham III - reigned 1026-1031
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