Some scholars further categorize different types of Islamists, into groups of those who do or do not advocate political resistance or violence. These distinctions and the tendencies they describe have become more relative in South Asia, as globalization and the rapidity of information exchange, travel, and the dissemination of ideas and ideologies have facilitated ever closer relationships between, for example, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Middle East. Yet, the scope and impact of Islamic Revival are also varied throughout this broad region. In Indonesia and Malaysia, for example, militant or violent expressions have not had much success, and in China, the Uigher population, though experiencing some political unrest vis-à-vis Chinese authorities in recent years, has flourished culturally despite the lack of political power.
1. Why was Islam’s spread to Southeast Asia essentially tied to economics?
2. Why might the mystical aspect of Sufism make Islam more appealable to the inhabitants of Southeast Asia?
3. Contrast revivalists with Islamists.