Some forms of ritual involve mediumship, trance, and the exorcism of demons. These usually occur during festivals, and are regarded as being of a lower order than the rituals of the Taoshi. The "barefoot masters" walk beds of hot coals, climb ladders of swords, or pierce themselves with sharp objects. In ritual spaces far less defined than those of the Taoshi, they will call on the powers of local spirit generals and spirit armies and, in the course of dramatic performances, invoke their power for aid and protection on behalf of the community. To communicate with the dead, a miniature sedan chair carried by two people may become the seat of a deity who will, through the movement of the chair, dictate a response to settle a conflict between dead and living family members.
Both mediums and puppets can also undertake expeditions against demons who have caused problems for a person or community. The barefoot masters, like the Taoshi, have their ritual texts, long epics that describe voyages to spirit realms. They often paint their faces in elaborate masks, like those of Chinese opera characters. They might enact a battle against the demons, with swords and military music, and strike themselves with their weapons, drawing blood. The blood is regarded as protection against evil, and the act, a form of expiation for the sins of all. Tissues are applied to the wounds to soak up a bit of blood, and then taken home and stuck on doorframes to ward off evil.
1. What are the two main types of ritual (and rites associated with them) that are of importance in Taoism?
2. Who can perform Taoist rituals, and how do they participate?
3. What are some of the ways the dead can be honored in Taoist rituals?