The two kinds of warriors: Hector & Achilles

University of Virginia English professor Mark Edmundson has written a fascinating essay entitled “Do Sports Build Character or Damage It?”  The short answer is “both,” or “either.”  In the course of his discussion, which draws on his own experience playing football, he points out Plato’s observation that human beings have a need for thymos–the thirst for glory–but that this passion needs to be subordinated to reason.  Edmundson illustrates his points by contrasting the two major figures of Homer’s Iliad:  Hector and Achilles.

In the Western heroic tradition, the paragon of the humane warrior is Homer’s Hector, prince of the Trojans. He is a fierce fighter: On one particular day, no Greek can stand up to him; his valor puts the whole Greek army to rout. Even on an unexceptional day, Hector can stand up to Ajax, the Greek giant, and trade blow for blow with him. Yet as fierce as Hector can be, he is also humane. He is a loving son to his aged parents, a husband who talks on equal terms with his wife, Andromache, and a tender-hearted father. He and King Priam are the only ones in Troy who treat Helen, the ostensible cause of the war, with kindness.

One of the most memorable scenes in The Iliad comes when Hector, fresh from the battlefield, strides toward his boy, Astyanax. The child screams with fright at the ferocious form encased in armor, covered with dust and gore. Hector understands his child in an instant and takes off his helmet, with its giant horsehair plume, then bends over, picks his boy up and dandles him, while Andromache looks on happily. Astyanax—who will soon be pitched off the battlements of Troy when the Greeks conquer the city—looks up at his father and laughs in delight.

The scene concentrates what is most appealing about Hector—and about a certain kind of athlete and warrior. Hector can turn it off. He can stop being the manslayer that he needs to be out on the windy plains of Troy and become a humane husband and father. The scene shows him in his dual nature—warrior and man of thought and feeling. In a sense, he is the figure that every fighter and athlete should emulate. He is the Navy Seal or Green Beret who would never kill a prisoner, the fearless fighter who could never harm a woman or a child. In the symbolic world of sports, where the horrors and the triumphs of combat are only mimicked, he is the one who comports himself with extreme gentleness off the field, who never speaks ill of an opponent, who never complains, never whines.

But The Iliad is not primarily about Hector. It is the poem of Achilles and his wrath. After Hector kills Achilles’ dear friend Patroclus, Achilles goes on a rampage, killing every Trojan he can. All humanity leaves him; all mercy is gone. At one point, a Trojan fighter grasps his knees and begs for mercy. Achilles taunts him: Look at me, he says, so strong and beautiful, and some day I, too, shall have to die. But not today. Today is your day. At another point, a river close to the city, the River Scamander, becomes incensed over Achilles’ murderous spree. The hero has glutted its waters with blood and its bed with bodies. The river is so enraged that it tries to drown the hero. When Achilles finally gets to Hector, he slaughters him before the eyes of his parents, Hecuba and Priam, and drags his body across the plains of Troy.

Achilles is drunk on rage, the poem tells us. His rational mind has left him, and he is mad with the joy of slaughter. The ability to modulate character that Hector shows—the fierce warrior becoming the loving father—is something Achilles does not possess. Achilles, one feels, could not stop himself if he wished to: A fellow Greek who somehow insulted him when he was on his rampage would be in nearly as much danger as a Trojan enemy. Plato would recognize Achilles as a man who has lost all reason and has allowed thymos to dominate his soul.

This ability to go mad—to become berserk—is inseparable from Achilles’ greatness as a warrior. It is part of what sets him above the more circumspect Hector on the battlefield. When Hector encounters Achilles for the last time, Hector feels fear. Achilles in his wrath has no idea what fear is, and that is part of what makes him unstoppable.

Achilles’ fate is too often the fate of warriors and, in a lower key, of athletes. They unleash power in themselves, which they cannot discipline. They leave the field of combat or of play and are still ferocious, or they can be stirred to ferocity by almost nothing. They let no insult pass. A misplaced word sends them into a rage. A mild frustration turns them violent. Thymos, as Plato would have said, has taken over their souls, and reason no longer has a primary place—in some cases, it has no place at all.

via Do Sports Build Character or Damage It? – The Chronicle Review – The Chronicle of Higher Education.

This comparison, I think, can apply to modern warriors in the military, and to athletes, and to “warriors” in the business world and other professions.  It’s possible for a lawyer, a scholar, a salesman, or maybe even a pastor (you think?) to go so all out that normal human feelings are extinguished in favor of winning at all costs, exerting power over other people, and achieving glory.  They can never “shut it off.”  Even when this means harming their families and ultimately themselves.  (Achilles himself being brought down by the weakling Paris whose arrow hits him at his one point of vulnerability.)

This has to do, of course, with vocation, when the vocation is twisted into a means of aggrandizement for the self rather than love and service to the neighbor.

About Gene Veith

Professor of Literature at Patrick Henry College, the Director of the Cranach Institute at Concordia Theological Seminary, a columnist for World Magazine and TableTalk, and the author of 18 books on different facets of Christianity & Culture.

  • Truth Unites… and Divides

    “When Achilles finally gets to Hector, he slaughters him before the eyes of his parents, Hecuba and Priam, and drags his body across the plains of Troy.”

    That sucks.

  • Truth Unites… and Divides

    “When Achilles finally gets to Hector, he slaughters him before the eyes of his parents, Hecuba and Priam, and drags his body across the plains of Troy.”

    That sucks.

  • Pete

    “Nice guys finish last.” Leo Durocher

  • Pete

    “Nice guys finish last.” Leo Durocher

  • trotk

    If you are interested in seeing a pretty rough movie that depicts this trait, watch Raging Bull.

  • trotk

    If you are interested in seeing a pretty rough movie that depicts this trait, watch Raging Bull.

  • Arfies

    I read part of the Iliad in Greek back in my college days, but I didn’t get through all of it, and in those ancient days I didn’t understand the things brought out in this article. Now I have to search through my boxes of books for my copy of The Anger of Achilles, by Robert Graves (if I remember correctly), which is a good modern translation/interpretation.

  • Arfies

    I read part of the Iliad in Greek back in my college days, but I didn’t get through all of it, and in those ancient days I didn’t understand the things brought out in this article. Now I have to search through my boxes of books for my copy of The Anger of Achilles, by Robert Graves (if I remember correctly), which is a good modern translation/interpretation.

  • http://www.whenisayrunrun.blogspot.com Andrew

    In religion today, I taught about Ahaz and we did veer on a slight tangent about vocation. A student raised the question, why would Ahaz sacrifice his own son to a false idol. Which led to talk of parents sacrificing their children to whichever false idol might rule their lives.
    Many of these points came up in class. How unfortunate that I did not think of Hector and Achilles since we read The Illiad last year with the same students.
    It was an interesting discussion, which was not planned. This of course led to Isaiah’s Messianic prophecies.

  • http://www.whenisayrunrun.blogspot.com Andrew

    In religion today, I taught about Ahaz and we did veer on a slight tangent about vocation. A student raised the question, why would Ahaz sacrifice his own son to a false idol. Which led to talk of parents sacrificing their children to whichever false idol might rule their lives.
    Many of these points came up in class. How unfortunate that I did not think of Hector and Achilles since we read The Illiad last year with the same students.
    It was an interesting discussion, which was not planned. This of course led to Isaiah’s Messianic prophecies.

  • Mockingbird

    I read parts of The Iliad with my jr high class as part of their Ancient History class, and the discussions about the rage of Achilles are always interesting. It is one of those great classroom moments to watch their epiphany that Achilles is a jerk, and Hector is the truly heroic figure.

    And I’ll also use this opportunity to plug two things: First, Stanley Lombardo’s translation of The Iliad. Done in verse, very readable, makes the Greek speak English. Second, if you know Koine Greek you really should try reading parts of The Iliad in Greek. The grammar is simple, you just have to get used to some new vocabulary (how many words are their for “kill” in Greek, anyway?).

  • Mockingbird

    I read parts of The Iliad with my jr high class as part of their Ancient History class, and the discussions about the rage of Achilles are always interesting. It is one of those great classroom moments to watch their epiphany that Achilles is a jerk, and Hector is the truly heroic figure.

    And I’ll also use this opportunity to plug two things: First, Stanley Lombardo’s translation of The Iliad. Done in verse, very readable, makes the Greek speak English. Second, if you know Koine Greek you really should try reading parts of The Iliad in Greek. The grammar is simple, you just have to get used to some new vocabulary (how many words are their for “kill” in Greek, anyway?).

  • Mole

    An elderly professor, visiting my father years ago, saw me as I returned home, somewhat battered, from a high school football game. His observation: “Ah football – too tame for warfare and too rough for a game.”

  • Mole

    An elderly professor, visiting my father years ago, saw me as I returned home, somewhat battered, from a high school football game. His observation: “Ah football – too tame for warfare and too rough for a game.”

  • Philip

    Read Jay-Zs “Empire State of Mind.”
    We as a society are doomed.

  • Philip

    Read Jay-Zs “Empire State of Mind.”
    We as a society are doomed.

  • kerner

    Aaaahhh!

    Just read Poul Anderson, whose science fiction entertained me in my youth, and who sometimes wrote with a sense of humor not always seen in that genre. In one short story, one of his characters decided to translate the Illiad into limerick form. The one stanza I remember was:

    I sing of the wrath of Achilles
    Who gave the Acheans the willies
    So, hear me o muse
    How Troy got the goose
    And problems that really were dillies…

    Homer would have approved, if he had had enough to drink… :D

  • kerner

    Aaaahhh!

    Just read Poul Anderson, whose science fiction entertained me in my youth, and who sometimes wrote with a sense of humor not always seen in that genre. In one short story, one of his characters decided to translate the Illiad into limerick form. The one stanza I remember was:

    I sing of the wrath of Achilles
    Who gave the Acheans the willies
    So, hear me o muse
    How Troy got the goose
    And problems that really were dillies…

    Homer would have approved, if he had had enough to drink… :D


CLOSE | X

HIDE | X