Numa Pompilius developed rituals for Rome that were complex and difficult to perform, but not expensive. In this way he promoted reverence among the Romans without barring even the poorest from worshiping the Gods. “He gave (the pontifex) full solemn written instructions about the ceremonies, specifying for each sacrifice the proper offerings, the proper days and the proper temples and the way in which money should be raised to meet the expenses (Livy 1.20.5-6).” Today we can get some idea… Read more

Numa and Mola Salsa in Roman Ritual

Thirdly we come to a Postumnian Law that instructs us, “No sacrifices shall be performed without meal.” This refers to what we call mola salsa in Latin. It is the product of an ancient method of preparing far, a type of winter wheat Read more

Discussing Sacrifice in the Bhagavad-Gita

For Catholics, sacrifice is about depriving yourself of something you enjoy, or doing something extra like saying additional prayers, novenas, or attending additional masses, and the purpose of this kind of sacrifice is to make yourself worthy so that God will either forgive some past offense or grant a wish in the future. The Vedic view of sacrifice is about maintaining balance in the greater Universe, restoring the divine to the Primordial Creator Prajapati so that He may continuously create the World anew. Read more

Sacrifice in the Numa Tradition

The Second Postumnian Law states: “Sacrifices are not to be celebrated with an effusion of blood, but consist of flour, wine, and the least costly offerings.” Read more

Update on Temple of Jupiter Perunnus

There is still a long way to go in building a temple complex for Jupiter Optimus Maximus Perunnus. Our fellow cultores in Poltava presented their plans to us while we visited last year, including a mock-up of what they hope to construct. Read more

Images of the Gods in Roman Ritual

“The Gods are not to be represented in the form of man or beast, nor are there to be any painted or graven image of a deity admitted.” At first Numa’s prohibition might appear to derive from another religious tradition, not the tradition of Rome where images of the Gods once abound.  In fact, this restriction relates to the very conception of the Gods and how Their providence influences the world. Before waxing too philosophical into pagan theology, we can… Read more

The Postumnian Laws

“Numa appointed Numa Marcius, son of Marcus, as pontifex from among the patricians.  He gave him full solemn written instructions about the ceremonies, specifying for each sacrifice the proper offerings, the proper days and the proper temples and the way in which money should be raised to meet the expenses (Livy 1.20).”   The instructions of Numa the Lawgiver were said to have been written down under the direction of Postumnius, following in the wake of the Gallic sack of… Read more

The Pious Life of a Cultor Deorum

The first lesson that we as cultores learn from Numa is to live an ethical life in accordance with Roman virtues. Among these virtues are justice, honesty, fidelity, piety, liberality, and frugality, along with fortitude, prudence, and temperance.  The Religio Romana is a tradition of practice more so than one of belief. This means that cultores are to actively practice Roman virtues at all times, not only out of conviction and resolve to live an ethical life, as we have… Read more

The Numa Tradition for Today

Romulus reigned for thirty-seven years after founding the City of Rome. Then, on 5 July 715 B. C. E. while performing a public sacrifice, a thunder storm engulfed Romulus and, with wind and hail, he ascended into the heavens to sit beside his father Mars, and his grandfather Jupiter as a new God in the Roman pantheon, Quirinus. In that same moment, Juno took Romulus’ Sabine wife Hersilia up into the heavens, where she, too, became a goddess.   The… Read more


This coming Sunday (21 April) the people of Rome shall celebrate the 2766 anniversary of the Founding of their city. Parades shall wind through the City with costumed companies of legionaries representing the glory of ancient Rome in just one part of the city’s celebration.  Modern cultores Deorum who are spread over the many parts of Earth find PARILIA a unifying celebration. It lends them a sense of identity in a community stretching outward from Rome in time and place,… Read more

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